1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus zebrinus Becc.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is New Guinea.

    [PW]
    General Description
    Moderately robust, clustering rattan climbing to 35 m. Stem with sheaths 13 - 36 mm diam., without sheaths to 8 - 18 mm diam., sometimes with white exudate; internodes 8 - 50 cm. Leaf ecirrate to 2.2 m long including petiole; sheath green, drying mid brown, with abundant brown indument, sheath spines usually abundant, easily detached, solitary or more usually in horizontal groups with bases coalescing to produce low collars c. 1 mm tall, the free spines pale brown to straw-coloured, erect, spines 2 - 30 x 0.5 - 1 mm, acicular, sometimes with sparse indument, spines around the leaf sheath mouth often crowded and conspicuous, spines eventually eroding to leave close low collars or ridges; knee 25 - 70 x 5 - 10 mm, drying mid brown, unarmed or armed as the rest of the sheath; ocrea to 100 x 4 cm, usually poorly preserved, erect at first, linear-lanceolate, papery, pale straw-coloured, armed with scattered or grouped dark bristles 1 - 10 mm long with paler slightly swollen bases, the ocrea soon disintegrating; flagellum present, to 5.5 m long; petiole 3 - 20 cm long, 9 - 15 mm wide and 3 - 6 mm thick at the base, flattened or shallowly channelled adaxially, abaxially rounded, with sparse to dense dull brown indument, and with scattered rigid persistent spines to 10 mm along the margins and adaxial face, but absent from a broad mid-band abaxially; rachis to 140 cm long, distally sparsely armed with recurved hooks and adaxially with abundant dull brown indumentum; leaflets 23 - 64 each side of rachis, regularly arranged, linear, longest leaflet in mid-leaf 23 - 47 x 1.2 - 2.5 cm, apical leaflets 7 - 15 x 0.4 - 1 cm, apical leaflet pair not united, surfaces glabrous, rather densely bristly on 3 nerves abaxially, sparsely bristly adaxially and along margins, transverse veinlets moderately conspicuous. Staminate inflorescence to 4.5 m long including to 0.45 m peduncle and 2 m flagelliform tip, branched to 3 orders; prophyll to 65 x 3 cm, closely sheathing, splitting and disintegrating at its tip, with sparse reddish brown indumentum, armed with scattered and grouped short triangular spines to 4 mm long, with swollen bases; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts similar to prophyll but shorter, similarly indumentose and spiny; primary branches to 7, to at least 60 cm long, c. 30 - 50 cm apart, with numerous rachillae; rachillae 2 - 5 x 2.5 - 3 mm; rachilla bracts 1.5 - 2 x 2.5 - 3 mm, distichously arranged, bearing sparse indumentum, unarmed; floral bracteole 1.5 x 1.5 - 2 mm, cup-shaped, with sparse indumentum. Staminate flowers 4 x 2 mm just prior to anthesis; calyx 2 mm diam., tubular in basal 1 mm, with 3 lobes 2 x 1.5 mm, glabrescent; corolla 3.5 x 2 mm in bud, tubular in basal 1 mm, the lobes 2 x 1.5; stamens 6, filaments 0.2 x 0.2 mm, anthers 2 x 0.3 mm; pistillode 1 x 0.3 mm, pyramidal. Pistillate inflorescence similar to staminate inflorescence, 1.9 - 6 m long including 0.72 - 3.8 m peduncle and 0.5 - 1.5 m flagelliform tip, branched to 2 orders; prophyll to 75 x 3.5 cm, tubular and closely sheathing, splitting apically and disintegrating, bearing sparse reddish brown indumentum and scattered and grouped short triangular spines with swollen bases; peduncular bracts 1 (always?), peduncular and rachis bracts to 22 - 58 x 0.6 - 1.4 cm, closely tubular, splitting apically, armed and indumentose as the prophyll; primary branches to 4, to 90 cm long, to 40 cm apart, with up to 20 rachillae; rachillae 45 - 190 x 2.5 - 3 mm; rachilla bracts 3 - 7 x 3 mm, distichously arranged, covered in sparse reddish brown indumentum and abundant pale triangular apiculate spines; proximal floral bracteoles apiculate, 1.5 x 1.5 mm, distal floral bracteoles apiculate, 1.5 x 1.5 mm, scar from sterile staminate not always present, c. 0.1 mm diam. Pistillate flowers borne in pairs, with or without a sterile staminate flower 5 x 1.8 mm in early bud; other details not available; perianths splitting and becoming explanate at fruit maturity, star-like. Sterile staminate flower in bud 3 x 1 mm. Fruit spherical or sometimes oblate, 8 - 15 x 8 - 11 mm including beak 1 - 2 x 1 - 2 mm, with 19 - 25 vertical rows of pale yellowish brown, channelled somewhat convex scales with pale margins. Seed to 9 x 8 x 7 mm (sarcotesta removed), ellipsoid with a pronounced longitudinal pit on the chalazal side; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal.
    Biology
    In lowland forest, usually on river banks, in swamp forest and alluvial forest at altitudes up to 450 m above sea level, rarely at higher elevations.
    Conservation
    Not threatened.
    Distribution
    Widespread in lowland New Guinea.
    [PW]
    Use
    Stems used for straps, armbands, fire-making, waist-hoops, tying, house construction, bow-strings by Yali People of Snow Mountains region. One record from the Baliem Valley area (Milliken 1544) indicates that the species is sometimes planted.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    New Guinea

    Calamus zebrinus Becc. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 16, 2003 Heatubun, C. [357], Indonesia K000030699
    Apr 16, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [299], Indonesia K000030806
    Apr 16, 2003 Maturbongs, R.A. [610], Indonesia K000030805
    Jan 1, 2003 Gusbager, P. [12], Indonesia K000030691
    Jan 31, 2002 Milliken, W. [1434], Indonesia K000030017
    Jan 31, 2002 Milliken, W. [1544], Indonesia K000030018
    Jan 31, 2002 Dransfield, J. [JD7657], Indonesia K000030020
    Jan 31, 2002 Baker, W.J. [621], Papua New Guinea K000030016
    Jan 31, 2002 Baker, W.J. [640], Papua New Guinea K000030023
    Jan 31, 2002 Baker, W.J. [673], Papua New Guinea K000030019
    Jan 31, 2002 Baker, W.J. [636], Papua New Guinea K000030026
    Jan 31, 2002 Baker, W.J. [670], Papua New Guinea K000030024
    Jan 31, 2002 Banka, R. [2006], Papua New Guinea K000114170
    Jan 31, 2002 Barfod, A. [465], Papua New Guinea K000114308
    Jan 31, 2002 Barfod, A. [491], Papua New Guinea K000114327
    Jan 31, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [97], Indonesia K000030021
    Jan 31, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [115], Indonesia K000030015
    Jan 31, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [78], Indonesia K000030022
    Jan 31, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [609], Indonesia K000030027
    Jan 31, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM683], Indonesia K000114344
    Jan 31, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM641], Indonesia K000114367
    Jan 31, 2002 Furtado, C.X. [30840], Papua New Guinea K000207880 holotype
    Jan 31, 2002 Furtado, C.X. [30840], Papua New Guinea K000207879 holotype
    Jan 31, 2002 Ave, W. [4080], Indonesia K000030025
    Jan 31, 2002 Rustiami, H. [32], Indonesia K000113565
    Jan 31, 2002 Kjaer, A. [519], Papua New Guinea K000114319
    Maturbongs, R.A. [698], Indonesia K000030718
    Maturbongs, R.A. [720], Indonesia K000030732
    Dransfield, J. [JD 7657], Indonesia Calamus steenisii 63995.000
    Baker, W.J. [636], Papua New Guinea Calamus steenisii 61787.000

    First published in Malesia 3: 59 (1886)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. & Dransfield, J. (2005). World Checklist of Palms: 1-223. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • J. Dransfield & W.J. Baker, An Account of the Papuasian Species of Calamus (Arecaceae) with Paired Fruit in Kew Bull. ser. 2, 58. 2003

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0