1. Family: Passifloraceae Juss. ex Roussel
    1. Genus: Passiflora L.
      1. Passiflora lindeniana Planch.

        A passion flower with striking white flowers, Passiflora lindeniana belongs to the third largest subgenus of Passiflora, called Astrophea. The 66 representatives of this subgenus are scandent shrubs, woody lianas or even free-standing trees or treelets. A small percentage of these, the true trees, have lost the adaptation to climb entirely. Passiflora lindeniana is one of only 15 species of these true arborescent passion flowers.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    A passion flower with striking white flowers, Passiflora lindeniana belongs to the third largest subgenus of Passiflora, called Astrophea. The 66 representatives of this subgenus are scandent shrubs, woody lianas or even free-standing trees or treelets. A small percentage of these, the true trees, have lost the adaptation to climb entirely. Passiflora lindeniana is one of only 15 species of these true arborescent passion flowers.

    Subgenus Astrophea is mainly distributed in South America, with only two species extending into Central America. Astrophea species were first brought into cultivation by lepidopterists, as most species are food sources for the larvae of longwings (butterflies of the genus Heliconius), which feed exclusively on species of Passiflora.

    Species Profile
    The genus Passiflora

    The genus Passiflora contains around 600 species, which are divided into five subgenera.  Most members of the passion flower genus are perennial vines (lianas) that climb by the means of tendrils, but some are trees and shrubs, and one is even an annual. The vast majority of species are found in South and Central America, but they are also found in North America, the West Indies, Southeast Asia and Oceania.

    Geography and distribution

    Passiflora lindeniana is native to Venezuela in South America. The southernmost known locations of this species are the lower Andes of Merida State and the eastern slopes of Sierra Nevada in Barinas State. It has also been recorded from northern coastal forest regions in Falcon and Lara States in the northwest, and Miranda, Capital and Aragua States in the north of Venezuela.

    In Merida State it occurs in the high cloud forest regions of the lower Andean Mountains at elevations up to 2,700 m, whereas in to the coastal regions of Capital and Aragua States it is found growing as low as 800 m above sea level. Specimens growing at higher elevations can experience night temperatures as low as 2­-4˚C, whereas those in coastal regions are exposed to day temperatures that can exceed 20˚C. Soils in these locations are slightly acidic.

    More recent studies on the distribution of Passiflora lindeniana suggest that the northernmost stands, which occur at lower elevations, are a different arborescent Passiflora altogether. Not only are these populations known to be subject to warmer temperatures than those in the lower Andes, but they can also be distinguished as separate species morphologically.

    Description

    Overview: Small to medium size, free-standing tree, up to 20 m tall (the tallest of all true tree passion flowers) with a basal girth of 1.25 m. Trunks are stout, woody, deep brown and well branched. Unlike most passion flowers this species has no tendrils (climbing aids that are usually found in members of the genus Passiflora ).

    Leaves: Most foliage is in the upper portion of the plant. Individual leaves are up to 90 cm long. They are simple and oblong-ovate with two extrafloral nectaries on the midrib below the base of the leaf blade.

    Flowers: This is one of the so-called orgy-flowered species, which means that all flower buds will open over the course of just a few days. The 6-7 cm wide flowers are born on single or multi-flowered inflorescences, which are produced exclusively on the plant's new growth. The five sepals are greenish-white, whereas the five petals are pure white. The two series of coronal filaments in the centre of the flower are yellow. The flowers are fragrant, which attracts their pollinator, large bees.

    Fruits: Up to 5.5 cm long. Pale yellow when ripe.

    Threats and conservation

    Passiflora lindeniana has not yet been assessed according to IUCN Red List criteria. Wild specimens are known to face a number of threats that have already resulted in a vast population decline. The main threats are deforestation of their natural habitat for agriculture, felling for firewood by locals and, more recently, attack of maturing fruits by a small fly ( Anastrepha dryas ) that reduces the likelihood of successful regeneration of remaining populations.

    Only one Passiflora of subgenus Astrophea ( Passiflora trochlearis ) has so far obtained an IUCN status (Vulnerable D2).

    Uses

    In Venezuela Passiflora lindeniana is used by locals for firewood.

    Within Europe and the United States it is mainly cultivated as a food source for butterflies or for its ornamental value. Because it is relatively difficult to cultivate, it is found mainly in specialised plant collections.

    Cultivation

    Passiflora lindeniana is regarded as a relatively difficult passion flower to cultivate. The reason for this is that plants in cultivation, as well as in the wild, can go through episodic dormancies, whereby the whole plant suddenly drops all leaves. The cause is unknown, but it is thought to be a response to unfavourable climatic conditions. Given that the plants naturally occur in higher elevations, where temperatures are low, they are most suitable for cultivation in a temperate glasshouse. Under glass, summer temperatures should not exceed 25°C, and during winter the plants should be kept at around 10°C.

    Plants are best grown from seed, which is widely available and germinates readily. Plants can also be propagated by vegetative means. At Kew, successful methods of propagation include semi-ripe cuttings, air-layering and grafting onto the rootstock of P. macrophylla

    .

    Common glasshouse pest and diseases include mealy bug, red spider mite and western flower thrips.

    In cultivation the flowers can be expected from late spring to early autumn. When flowering takes place, all blooms open within a couple of days (a phenomenon known as orgy-flowered).

    This species at Kew

    Passiflora lindeniana can be seen growing in Kew's Princess of Wales Conservatory (in the temperate orchid zone). It is also grown in the behind-the-scenes Tropical Nursery for scientific research.

    Pressed and dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of Passiflora lindeniana are held in Kew's Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of some of these specimens, including an image, can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    Venezuela
    Ecology
    Found from the high cloud forests of the lower Andean Mountains to the coastal forests of northern Venezuela.
    Conservation
    Not yet assessed according to IUCN Red List criteria, but considered to be at risk from deforestation and pest problems.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2700 m.; Andes.
    Habit
    Arbolito
    Conservation
    En Peligro
    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, firewood.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Colombia, Venezuela

    Common Names

    English
    Passion flower

    Passiflora lindeniana Planch. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2001 Knapp, S. [6675], Venezuela K001134136
    Jan 1, 1991 Linden, I. [1409], Colombia K000323437 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1991 Schlim, L. [1148], Colombia K001035627
    Jan 1, 1991 Bernardi, L. [17173], Venezuela K001035630
    Jan 1, 1966 Steyermark, J.A. [97143], Venezuela K001035626
    Jan 1, 1935 Fendler, A. [2548], Venezuela K001035628
    Fendler, A. [2548], Venezuela K001035629
    Linden, I. [1409], Colombia K000323438 isolectotype
    Bernardi, L. [17173], Venezuela K001035631
    Knapp, S. [6677], Venezuela K001134137
    Veillon, J.P. [s.n.], Venezuela K001134125
    Veillon, J.P. [s.n.], Venezuela K001134135
    Molinari, M [s.n.] 67004.000

    First published in Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot., sér. 5, 17: 182 (1873)

    Accepted by

    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Missouri Botanical Garden (2013). Passiflora lindeniana. Tropicos.
    • Hilgenhof, R. (2012). Passiflora subgenus Astrophea – Curiosities amongst the passionflowers. Dissertation. Kew Diploma in Horticulture. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Molinari, M. (2012). Passiflora lindeniana [email](personal communication, 14 March 2012).
    • The Plant List (2010). Passiflora lindeniana. A working list of all plant species.
    • Vanderplank, J. & Magdalena Rodriguez, C. (2010). 673. Passiflora lindeniana – Passifloraceae. Wiley-Blackwell Publishing. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 27(2): 123–131.
    • Ulmer, T. & MacDougal, J. M. (2004). Passiflora – Passionflowers of the World. Timber Press.
    • Ulmer, B. & Ulmer, T. (1997). Passionsblumen – Eine faszinierende Gattung, 1st Edition. Laupenhütten Druck.
    • Vanderplank, J. (1991). Passion Flowers, 1st Edition. Cassel Publisher Limited.
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bernal, R., Gradstein, R.S. & Celis, M. (eds.) (2016). Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia 1-2: 1-3068. Libro impreso.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0