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  1. Family: Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link
    1. Genus: Polygala Tourn. ex L.
      1. Polygala arenaria Willd.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Polygalaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    An annual, erect or diffuse and much-branched, from a few inches to a foot or more in height
    Corolla
    Lateral petals yellowish, keel-petal pink to purple
    Ecology
    Widely distributed over the whole area.
    [FZ]

    Polygalaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Annual 5–25 cm. tall with spreading habit, dichotomously or trichotomously branched; stem apparently terminating in an inflorescence and growth continuing by lateral branches.
    Stem
    Stems crisped-pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 1–6 x 0.2–2 cm., linear-elliptic to elliptic, fairly densely pubescent to nearly glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers white, dull orange or pale purple, deflexed, with pedicels c. 3 mm. long, in very congested terminal racemes usually 1.5–3 cm. long, often globose, bracts and bracteoles persistent, 1.5 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal 2–2.5 mm. long; wing sepals 5–7 x 3–4 mm., obliquely elliptic, usually somewhat pilose towards the base; anterior sepals 1.5–2 mm. long, free.
    Corolla
    Upper petals 2 x 0.9 mm., obovate-elliptic, constricted below the middle; carina 2.5 x 1 mm., crest 1.5 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8.
    Fruits
    Capsule 3.5 x 2.5 mm., broadly obovate-elliptic in outline, wing less than 0.5 mm. broad, ciliate on the margin; caruncle 0.5 mm. long, appendages very small.
    [FTEA]

    Polygalaceae, Jorge Paiva. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2007

    Type
    Type: Guinea, sine loc., sine coll. (B!, holo.)
    Habit
    Annual herb, 5–40 cm tall
    Stem
    Stems slender, of sympodial growth, pseudo-di- or trichotomously branched, apparently terminating in an inflorescence and growth continuing by lateral branches, usually exceeding the primary one, crispedpubescent to nearly patent-pubescent
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate (petiole 1–3 mm, crisped-pubescent), linear-elliptic to oblanceolate, 10–60(–80) × 2–20 mm, subacute to rounded, base cuneate, densely crisped-pubescent to nearly glabrous on both sides
    Flowers
    Flowers white, dull orange or lilac to pale purple, in dense terminal racemes, often globose-ovoid, 1.5–3 cm long, peduncle 3–10 mm, crispedpubescent, rachis crisped-pubescent; bracts lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm long, usually pubescent, persistent, bracteoles lanceolate, 1–1.3 mm long, usually pubescent, persistent; pedicels 2–3(–5) mm, usually crisped-pubescent
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal keelshaped, 2–2.5(–3) × 1 mm, pubescent or glabrescent; wing sepals suborbicular to obliquely elliptic, (3.5–)5–7 × (2.5–)3–5(–5.5) mm, shortly stipitate, somewhat pubescent; anterior sepals keel-shaped, 1.2–2 × 1–1.3 mm, free
    Corolla
    Upper petals obliquely elliptic, constricted below the middle, (2–)2.5–3 × 1–1.5 mm; carina 2.5–3 × (1–)1.5–2 mm; crest 1–2 mm long, fimbriate
    Stamens
    Stamens 8
    Fruits
    Capsule broadly obovate-elliptic in outline, (2.5–)3–4 × 2–3 mm, narrowly winged (wing 0.2–0.3 mm wide), ciliate
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-ellipsoid, 2–2.5 × 1–1.3 mm, white-sericeous; caruncle subsymmetric, 0.5–0.8 mm long, with 3 small appendages
    Figures
    Fig 5: 5, p 11
    Ecology
    Grassland, scattered tree grassland, ruderal sites; 0–1700 m
    Distribution
    Range: Widespread throughout tropical Africa, from Mauritania to Ethiopia and S to Angola and Mozambique Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K2 K7 T1 T3 T4 T6 T8
    [FTEA]
    Use
    The ash of this species is used in Tanzania against puff-adder bite.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Polygala arenaria Willd. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1975 Olorunfemi, J. [FHI 30762], Cameroon K000106226
    Jan 1, 1975 Vogel [s.n.], Nigeria K000231586 Unknown type material
    Chancellor, R.J. [152], Uganda 9865.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Sp. Pl., ed. 4, 3: 880 (1802)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 263.
    • Chodat Monogr. Polygal. 337
    • —F.T.A. 1: 128, partly

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 2, 1: 184, fig. 24.3/5–6 (2000).
    • Fontqueria 50: 186, t. 34/d (1998)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 55 (1994)
    • F.Z. 1, 1: 320, t. 57/17, t. 58/C (1960)
    • F.C.B. 7: 248 (1958)
    • Sp. Pl., ed. 5(5), 3: 380 (1802)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0