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  1. Family: Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link
    1. Genus: Polygala Tourn. ex L.
      1. Polygala erioptera DC.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Arabian Peninsula, Indian Subcontinent to Indo-China.

    [FTEA]

    Polygalaceae, Jorge Paiva. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2007

    Type
    Type: Senegal, Bacle s.n. (G-DC!, lecto.)
    Habit
    Annual, rarely perennial herb or shrublet, 5–50 cm tall
    Stem
    Stems usually much branched from near the base, with arcuate-ascending branches, densely crispedpubescent or, occasionally, patent-pubescent, rarely glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate, linear oblong-elliptic to narrowly oblong-oblanceolate or oblong-linear, 7–30(–40) × 1.5–6 mm, rounded, sometimes emarginate, base cuneate, crispedpubescent, rarely almost glabrous; petiole 1–1.5 mm, crisped-pubescent
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish-white, usually pink-tipped, in short few-flowered lateral racemes up to ± 1 cm long or solitary; rachis crisped-pubescent; bracts linear, 0.7–1 mm long, pubescent, persistent; bracteoles linear, 0.5–0.7 mm long, pubescent, persistent; pedicels 1–2 mm, crisped-pubescent
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal keel-shaped, 2–3 mm long, crisped-pubescent; wing sepals obliquely elliptic, (3.5–)4.5–5 × (1.5–)2–2.5 mm, usually with a prominent green stripe down the midrib, densely pubescent; anterior sepals linear, 1.5–2.5 × 0.5–0.8 mm, pubescent, free
    Corolla
    Upper petals obliquely and narrowly obovateelliptic, 2.5–3 × 0.7–1 mm; carina 3–3.5 mm long; crest ± 1 mm long, fimbriate
    Stamens
    Stamens 8
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong-obovate to oblong-elliptic in outline, 3–4 × 2.5–3 mm, ciliate and very narrowly winged or almost unwinged, pubescent
    Seeds
    Seeds flattenedcylindric, 2.5–3.5 × 1.2–1.3 mm, brown-sericeous; caruncle sharply conical, 0.5–0.8 mm long, without appendages
    Figures
    Fig 4: 5, p 10
    Ecology
    Various types of open bushland, woodland and grassland, often on rocky ground or lava scree, also ruderal and as a weed; 0–2050 m
    Note
    Polygala erioptera DC. is widespread in several types of habitats from Africa and Arabia to tropical Asia. So it is one of the most variable and polymorphic species of the genus, varying from small ephemeral annuals to woody shrubs in East Africa (around Lake Turkana); from sparsely pubescent or glabrescent to densely grey-hairy; and from wings acuminate with prominent central stripe to obtuse without stripe. These variations are so continuous that is impossible to justify keeping the infra-specific taxa recognised by some authors, including myself!
    Distribution
    Range: Widespread throughout Africa (except Cape and NW); Arabian Peninsula, extending eastward to India
    [FZ]

    Polygalaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Annual herb, 10–40 cm. high, usually much branched from near the base with arcuate-ascending branches densely crisped- or occasionally subpatent-pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 8–30 x 1.5–6 mm., linear-oblong-elliptic to narrowly oblong-elliptic, crisped-pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish-white, pedicels up to 2 mm. long, in short few-flowered lateral racemes up to about 1 cm. long or solitary; bracts and bracteoles persistent, about 1 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal 3 x 1 mm., keel-shaped; wing sepals up to 5 x 2.5 mm., greenish-white with a pronounced green stripe down the centre, obliquely elliptic, densely pubescent; anterior sepals 2.5 x0.5 mm., free.
    Corolla
    Upper petals 3 x 1 mm., obliquely narrowly obovate-elliptic; carina 3.5 x 1.2 mm., crest 1 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8.
    Fruits
    Capsule up to 4 x 2.8 mm., ovate-oblong in outline, pubescent at the margins, marginal wing obsolete.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3.5 x 1.2 mm., flattened-cylindric, brown-sericeous; caruncle sharply conical, without appendages.
    [FWTA]

    Polygalaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Erect annual 1–2 ft. high, or diffuse and much-branched
    Indumentum
    Pubescent
    Flowers
    Flowers about 5 mm. long, pink-tipped.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Gulf States, India, Iran, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Malawi, Maldives, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Pakistan, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Polygala erioptera DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1975 Hooker, J.D. [134], Cape Verde K001134183
    Jan 1, 1975 Hooker, J.D. [134], Cape Verde K001134184
    Jan 1, 1975 Vogel, T. [50], Cape Verde K001134181
    Jan 1, 1975 Vogel, T. [58], Cape Verde K001134182
    Jan 1, 1975 Lowe, R.T. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134178
    Jan 1, 1975 Cardoso, J. [16], Cape Verde K001134176
    Jan 1, 1975 Bolle, C. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134177
    Jan 1, 1975 Aurell [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134180
    Jan 1, 1975 Wetherell [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134179
    Schweinfurth, G. [125], Eritrea K000231563
    Bidgood, S. [6123], Tanzania K000468302
    Jan 1, 1977 Hildebrandt, J.M. [2784], Kenya Polygala erioptera subsp. petraea K000231724 Unknown type material
    Hildebrandt, J.M. [2784], Kenya Polygala erioptera subsp. petraea K000231725

    Bibliography

    First published in Prodr. 1: 326 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Figueiredo, E., Smith, G.F. & Paiva, J. (2013). A checklist of Polygala (Polygalaceae) in the Flora of Southern Africa region with notes on types Phytotaxa 155: 1-22.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Thailand 7(3): 351-654. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Jongbloed, M., Western, R.A. & Boer, B. (2000). Annotated Check-list for plants in the U.A.E.: 1-90. Zodiac Publishing, Dubai.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Chrtek, J. & Krísa, B. (1977). Flora Iranica 124: 1-11. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Nasir, E. & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1970-1995). Flora of West Pakistan 1-131.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 265.
    • —Chodat Monogr. Polygal. 342

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Thailand 7(3): 351-654. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Chrtek, J. & Krísa, B. (1977). Flora Iranica 124: 1-11. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Quézel, P. (1958). Mission Botanique au Tibesti: 1-357. Université d'Alger.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 2, 1: 182, fig. 24.2/16, 17 (2000).
    • Fontqueria 50: 169, t. 28/c (1998)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 56 (1994)
    • Thulin, Fl. Somalia 1: 84 (1993)
    • F.Z. 1, 1: 316 (1960)
    • F.C.B. 7: 255 (1958)
    • Prodr. 1: 326 (1824)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/