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  1. Family: Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link
    1. Genus: Polygala Tourn. ex L.
      1. Polygala persicariifolia DC.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Tropical & Subtropical Asia to N. Australia.

    [FZ]

    Polygalaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Annual up to 60 cm. or more tall; stems slender, often arcuate-ascending, crisped-pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2–8 x 0.5–2 cm., elliptic to very narrowly elliptic, somewhat acuminate, with rather sparse, short, bristly hairs.
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish, pink or purplish, pedicels 3–4 mm. long, in many-flowered, terminal and lateral racemes up to 10 cm. long; rhachis crisped-pubescent; bracts 1.5–2 mm. long; bracteoles up to 0.8 mm. long, persistent.
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal 3–3.5 mm. long, keel-shaped; wing sepals 5–7 x 3.5–6 mm., very broadly elliptic to suborbicular with rather prominent venation, glabrous; anterior sepals 2.5–3 mm. long, free, keel-shaped.
    Corolla
    Upper petals 3 mm. long, obliquely and irregularly elliptic, notched on one side; carina 4 x 1.5 mm., crest 1.5 mm. long, purple.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8.
    Fruits
    Capsule 5 x 4.5 mm., very broadly elliptic to suborbicular in outline, ciliate on the margin, with a narrow wing less than 0.5 mm. broad.
    Seeds
    Seeds 3 x 1.5 mm., oblong-ellipsoid, with white silky hairs; caruncular appendages scarcely developed.
    [FWTA]

    Polygalaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Annual herb, to 31/2 ft. high
    Calyx
    Lateral sepals magenta
    Corolla
    Corolla magenta.
    [FTEA]

    Polygalaceae, Jorge Paiva. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2007

    Type
    Type: Nepal, Wallich s.n. (G-DC!, holo.)
    Habit
    Annual herb, up to 125 cm tall
    Stem
    Stems slender, simple or ± branched, crispedpubescent to glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, petiolate (petiole 1–2 mm, crispedpubescent), lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, (20–)25–80 × 5–30 mm, acuminate, base cuneate, sparsely pubescent to glabrescent
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish white, pink, mauve to pale purple, in terminal and lateral racemes 3–12 cm long, rachis crisped-pubescent; bracts lanceolate, 1.5–2 mm long, persistent, bracteoles lanceolate, 0.5–1 mm long, persistent; pedicels 3–5 mm, usually crisped-pubescent
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal keel-shaped, 3–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm, glabrescent or ciliate; wing sepals obliquely suborbicular-ovate to broadly elliptic, 5–8 × (3.5–)4–6 mm, with prominent venation, glabrous or ciliate; anterior sepals keel-shaped, 2.5–3 × 1.5–2 mm, glabrescent or ciliate, free
    Corolla
    Upper petals obliquely and irregularly elliptic, 2.5–4 × 1.5 mm, notched on one side; carina 4–6 × 1.5 mm; crest 2–3 mm long, fimbriate
    Stamens
    Stamens 8
    Fruits
    Capsule broadly-elliptic to suborbicular in outline, 5–7 × 4–5.5 mm, winged, wing up to 0.5 mm wide, ciliate
    Seeds
    Seeds ellipsoid, 3–3.5 × 1.5 mm, with white silky hairs 0.2 mm long; caruncle subsymmetric, kidney-shaped, with three small appendages
    Figures
    Fig 6: 4, p 13
    Ecology
    Wooded grassland, grassland; 750–2100 m
    Distribution
    Range: Widespread throughout tropical Asia and tropical Africa Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K3 K5 T1 T4 T6 T7 T8

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Guinea, India, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malawi, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, Philippines, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Polygala persicariifolia DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2006 Thomson, T. [s.n.], Nepal K000592189
    Jan 1, 2006 Wallich [4185], Nepal K000592187
    Jan 1, 2006 Wallich [s.n.], Nepal K000592188
    Jan 1, 2006 Wallich [4185], Nepal K000592190
    Jan 1, 2006 Edgeworth, M.P. [139], Nepal K000592186
    Nov 1, 2003 Onana, J.-M. [1915], Cameroon K000746078
    Jan 1, 1976 Schweinfurth, G. [926], Sudan K000231549 isotype
    Jan 1, 1976 Schimper [1225], Ethiopia K000231550
    Jan 1, 1976 Schimper [20], Ethiopia K000231552 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1976 Quartin-Dillons [s.n.], Ethiopia K000231551
    s.coll. [2090], Philippines K000592305
    Micholitz [s.n.], Philippines K000592304
    Merril, E.D. [4401], Philippines K000592303 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 4185], Nepal K001038344
    Blinkworth, R. [Cat. no. 4185], India K001038345
    [Wight] [s.n.], India K000592185
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 4185] K001038346

    Bibliography

    First published in Prodr. 1: 326 (1824)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Thailand 7(3): 351-654. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Van Steenis, C.G.G.J. & De Wilde, W.J.J.O. (eds.) (1984-1989). Flora Malesiana 10: 1-748. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Chev. Fl. Viv. 1: 269.
    • —F.T.A. 1: 129

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Santisuk, T. & Larsen, K. (eds.) (2001). Flora of Thailand 7(3): 351-654. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 2, 1: 184, fig. 24.3/7–10 (2000).
    • Fontqueria 50: 192, t. 36/g (1998)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 55 (1994)
    • F.P.U.: 52 (1962)
    • F.Z. 1, 1: 322, t. 57/16 (1960)
    • F.C.B. 7: 254 (1958)
    • Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 31(2): 331, t. 27/22–23 (1893)
    • Prodr. 1: 326, 64 (1824) as persicariaefolia

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0