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  1. Family: Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link
    1. Genus: Polygala Tourn. ex L.
      1. Polygala senensis Klotzsch

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Somalia to S. Africa, S. Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Polygalaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Perennial herb or shrublet (occasionally annual ?) about 0.6 m. high, often with annual shoots produced from a woody rhizome; stems slender, densely crisped-pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 3 x 1 cm., narrowly oblanceolate to oblong-oblanceolate, densely crisped-pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers yellowish, pedicels up to 6 mm. long, in lateral 3–12-flowered racemes 1.5–3.5 cm. long with persistent, ovate-acuminate bracts and bracteoles about 1 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal 4 x 2.8 mm., keel-shaped, pubescent; wing sepals 8–10 x 7–8 mm., yellow, ovate-suborbicular, pubescent; anterior sepals 3.5 x 2.5 mm., free, keel-shaped, pubescent.
    Corolla
    Upper petals 6 x 2.5 mm., obliquely oblanceolate; carina 6 x 2.5 mm., with crest 3 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens 8.
    Fruits
    Capsule 6 x 5 mm., broadly oblong-elliptic in outline, pubescent, emarginate at the apex, margin very narrowly winged.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4 x 2 mm., at first densely sericeous, more sparsely so when ripe; caruncular appendages broad, humped at the apex, and extending almost to the base of the seed.
    [FTEA]

    Polygalaceae, Jorge Paiva. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2007

    Type
    Type: Mozambique, Sena, Peters s.n. (B†, holo.)
    Habit
    Perennial, occasionally annual, herb up to 60 cm tall, often with annual shoots produced from a woody rhizome
    Stem
    Stems slender, branched, densely crispedpubescent, sometimes patent-pubescent
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, subsessile (petiole up to 0.1 mm, pubescent), narrowly oblong-lanceolate to oblanceolate, 10–30 × 5–10 mm, rounded to obtuse, base cuneate, densely pubescent on both sides
    Flowers
    Flowers pinkish to yellowish, in lateral racemes 1.5–8 cm long, rachis pubescent; bracts ovate-acuminate, 1.2–1.5 mm long, pubescent, persistent; bracteoles ovateacuminate, 1–1.3 mm long, pubescent, persistent; pedicels 4–6 mm, pubescent
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal keel-shaped, 3.5–4 mm × 2.5 mm, pubescent; wing sepals suborbicular to obovate-orbicular, 8–10 × 7–8 mm, conspicuously and densely reticulate, pubescent; anterior sepals keel-shaped, 3.5 × 2.5 mm, pubescent, free
    Corolla
    Upper petals obliquely oblanceolate, 5.5–6 × 2–2.5 mm; carina 6–6.5 mm × 2.5 mm; crest 2–3 mm long, fimbriate
    Stamens
    Stamens 8
    Fruits
    Capsule broadly oblong-elliptic in outline, 6–7.5 × 4.5–5.5 mm, emarginate, very narrowly winged (wing 0.1 mm wide), densely pubescent
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-ellipsoid, 4–4.5 × 1.5–2 mm, white-sericeous; caruncle asymmetric, with three appendages, two humped at the apex of the seed and extending almost to the base of the seed, the other one short too (0.5–1.5 mm long)
    Figures
    Fig 5: 2, p 11
    Ecology
    Scattered tree grassland, grassland, often on sandy soils; 0–500 m
    Note
    The type [Tanzania, Zanzibar, Hildebrandt 905 (B†, holo.)] of P. gagnebiniana Chodat [Chodat in Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 31 (2): 321, t. 27/12 (1893); T.T.C.L.: 456 (1949); U.O.P.Z.: 419 (1949); Paiva in Fontqueria 50: 308 (1998)] has disappeared. I saw material collected by Hildebrandt in the Island of Zanzibar with the same number 905 (BM, BREM, K, W). This material is P. sphenoptera Fresen. and does not agree with Chodat’s original description of P. gagnebiniana, even with the drawing of the seed he presents in his monograph [in Mém. Soc. Phys. Hist. Nat. Genève 31 (2): t. 27/12 (1893)]. Chodat’s original description of P. gagnebiniana and this drawing agree with Polygala senensis Klotzsch, which does not occur on Zanzibar. There are two explanations for this: either Chodat has cited a wrong specimen or Hildebrandt 905 (B†) was not the same species as the duplicates [ Hildebrandt 905 (BM, BREM, K, W], which I have seen.
    Distribution
    Range: Somalia, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa Flora districts: K1 K4 K7 T6 T8

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Swaziland, Tanzania, Yemen, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Polygala senensis Klotzsch appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Gillespie, J.B. [306], Kenya 27108.000

    Bibliography

    First published in W.C.H.Peters, Naturw. Reise Mossambique 6(1): 113 (1861)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E., Smith, G.F. & Paiva, J. (2013). A checklist of Polygala (Polygalaceae) in the Flora of Southern Africa region with notes on types Phytotaxa 155: 1-22.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Figueiredo, E., Smith, G.F. & Paiva, J. (2013). A checklist of Polygala (Polygalaceae) in the Flora of Southern Africa region with notes on types Phytotaxa 155: 1-22.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fontqueria 50: 177, t. 30/e-f (1998), pro parte excl. syn. P. obtusissima.
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 56 (1994)
    • Thulin, Fl. Somalia 1: 82 (1993)
    • F.Z. 1, 1: 315, t. 56/10 (1960)
    • Peters, Reise Mossamb. Bot. 1: 113 (1861)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0