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  1. Family: Polygalaceae Hoffmanns. & Link
    1. Genus: Polygala Tourn. ex L.
      1. Polygala sphenoptera Fresen.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Polygalaceae, Jorge Paiva. Flora of Tropical East Africa, 2007

    Type
    Type: Ethiopia, between Halei and Tembien, Rüppell s.n. (FR!, holo.)
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb or shrublet, 15–60(–100) cm tall
    Stem
    Stems ± erect, slender, branched, crisped-pubescent to patent-pubescent, rarely nearly glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, linear-lanceolate, narrowly oblong-elliptic to elliptic, 15–60(–80) × 3–8(–13) mm, subacute to rounded, base cuneate, crisped-pubescent to patent-pubescent on both sides; petiole 0.5–0.8 mm, pubescent
    Flowers
    Flowers pink to purple, in lateral racemes 2–10(–18) cm long, ± densely flowered, rachis crispedpubescent to patent-pubescent; bracts ovate-acuminate, 1.5–2 mm long, usually pubescent, ciliolate, persistent, bracteoles ovate, 1–1.3 mm long, usually pubescent, ciliolate, persistent; pedicels 4–6(–8) mm, usually glabrous, but often pubescent
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal keel-shaped, 3–3.5 × 1.5–2 mm, pubescent or glabrescent; wing sepals suborbicular, 4–8 × 7–7.5 mm, shortly unguiculate, frequently with purple margin when dried, inconspicuously and laxly reticulate, glabrous or pubescent at the base; anterior sepals keel-shaped, 3–3.3 × 1.5–2 mm, pubescent or glabrescent, free
    Corolla
    Upper petals obliquely oblanceolate, 3.5–4 × 1.5–2 mm, puberulous towards the base; carina 4.5–5 × 2.5–3 mm; crest 2–3 mm long, fimbriate
    Stamens
    Stamens 8
    Fruits
    Capsule broadly oblongelliptic in outline, 4–6 × 3–4 mm, asymmetrically emarginate, narrowly winged (wing 0.2–0.3 mm wide), sometimes ciliolate
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-ellipsoid, 2–3.5 × 1.5 mm, whitesericeous; caruncle subsymmetric, with three appendages, two longer, 0.5–1 mm long, the other shorter or almost absent
    Figures
    Fig 5: 3, p 11
    Ecology
    Evergreen bushland, wooded grassland, grassland; 0–2600 m
    Note
    The type [Tanzania, Mpororo, Stuhmann 2107 (B†, holo.)] of P. stuhlmannii Gürke [in P.O.A. C: 234 (1895); T.T.C.L.: 457 (1949); Paiva in Fontqueria 50: 312 (1998)] has disappeared and there are no duplicates. I found material collected by Schlieben 5116 (B, BM, M) determined as P. stuhlmannii Gürke, which is P. sadebeckiana Gürke. But the description in the protologue, mainly the one of the leaves, does not agree with P. sadebeckiana Gürke. It is, perhaps, P. sphenoptera Fresen., which is a very polymorphic species. The same happened with the type [Kenya, Kilimanjaro, Volkens 330 (B†, holo.)] of P. lentiana Gürke [in P.O.A. C: 234 (1895); Paiva in Fontqueria 50: 309 (1998)], which is P. sphenoptera Fresen . or P. ehlersii Gürke, but probably the former. I also did not find the type [Tanzania, Amani, Warnecke 409 (B†?, holo.)] of P. ruderalis Chodat [in Engl. E.J. 48(1–2): 315 (1912); Paiva in Fontqueria 50: 312 (1998)], which is almost certainly P. sphenoptera Fresen .
    Distribution
    Range: From Ethiopia and Sudan south to South Africa Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Z
    [FZ]

    Polygalaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb or shrublet up to 0.6–1 m. tall with slender stems usually crisped-pubescent sometimes patent-pubescent or nearly glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves 2–8 x 0.3–2.5 cm., very narrowly to narrowly elliptic, crisped-pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers pink or purple, pedicels slender, up to 6 mm. long, in slender lateral racemes usually about 5–8 cm. long but occasionally up to 18 cm. long; bracts and bracteoles 1.5–2 mm. long, persistent.
    Calyx
    Posterior sepal 3 x 1.8 mm.; wing sepals 4–7 mm. in diam., suborbicular in outline, usually glabrous, frequently and characteristically tinged with purple round the extreme margin; anterior sepals 3 mm. long, free.
    Corolla
    Upper petals 4 mm. long and 2 mm. broad near the apex, obliquely oblanceolate-oblong with a semi-circular incision at one side of the waist, puberulous from the waist downwards; carina 4.5 x 2 mm., crest 2–3 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule 4–6 x 3–4 mm., broadly oblong in outline, slightly broader at the apex or almost suborbicular, with a narrowly winged margin, 0.2–0.3 mm. broad.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 x 1.5 mm., sericeous; caruncular appendages 0.5–1 mm. long.
    Note
    (Note: the wings vary from 4 to 7 mm. in diam. and the rest of the flower parts vary more or less in proportion).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Polygala sphenoptera Fresen. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 1978 Schweinfurth, G. [964], Eritrea K000231556
    Jan 1, 1977 Rehmann, A. [6346], South Africa K000231786
    Jan 1, 1977 Rehmann, A. [5216], South Africa K000231787
    Jan 1, 1977 Rehmann, A. [4943], South Africa K000231788
    Bidgood, S. [6401], Tanzania K000468024
    Patel, H. [s.n.], Mozambique K000614353
    Friss, I. [14026], Ethiopia K001259670

    Bibliography

    First published in Mus. Senckenberg. 2: 274 (1837)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Figueiredo, E., Smith, G.F. & Paiva, J. (2013). A checklist of Polygala (Polygalaceae) in the Flora of Southern Africa region with notes on types Phytotaxa 155: 1-22.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Paiva, j. (2007). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Polygalaceae: 1-60.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1960). Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 2, 1: 180, fig. 24.2/1–4 (2000).
    • Fontqueria 50: 182, t. 34/a (1998)
    • U.K.W.F. ed. 2: 55 (1994)
    • Thulin, Fl. Somalia 1: 82 (1993)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E Africa t. 719 (1978)
    • F.P.U.: 52 (1962)
    • F.Z. 1, 1: 315, t. 56/13 (1960)
    • F.C.B. 7: 251, t. 14 (1958)
    • Mus. Senckenb. 2: 274 (1837)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/