1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus pachypus W.J.Baker, Bayton, J.Dransf. & Maturb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is New Guinea to Bismarck Archipelago.

    [PW]
    Biology
    Various types of primary and secondary forest vegetations, 100-1500 m with more than half of the records above 600m
    Conservation
    Least concern
    General Description
    Robust, solitary rattan climbing to 26 m. Stem with sheaths 25-60 mm diam., without sheaths 13-30 mm diam.; internodes 18-33 cm. Leaf cirrate, to 4 m long including cirrus and petiole; sheath dark green, drying brown, with abundant, caducous indumentum of irregular brown, fibrous scales, spines few to numerous, 1-60 x 0.3-5 mm, red-brown to black, planar, triangular, flexible, often curving, tapering distinctly at base then attenuate to a narrowly acute apex, margins sometimes sinuous, spines sometimes united at their margins to form compound spines, spine bases yellow, swollen, often distinctly so in larger spines, spine surface with indumentum as on sheath, spines of various sizes, in irregular partial whorls of up to 14 interspersed with solitary spines, spine impressions on sheath sometimes conspicuous, sheath mouth armed with numerous small spines; knee 6-100 mm long, 24-45 mm wide, unarmed or lightly armed with short spines, colour and indumentum as on sheath; ocrea 2-11 mm, forming a low, woody, brown, lightly armed, persistent collar, base of ocrea extending along petiole to an acute angle; flagellum absent; petiole 5-90 mm, 14-23 mm wide and 7-15 mm thick at base, channelled or flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, indumentum as on sheath, with few to many triangular spines; rachis 1.3-2.2 m, with spines and indumentum as petiole, with grapnel spines abaxially; leaflets 1-17 each side of rachis, usually arranged in widely spaced pairs, rarely regular or subregular, when paired the leaflets in each pair sometimes divergent, broadly lanceolate, cucullate, longest leaflets near middle of leaf, 27-46 x 4.4-6.5 cm, apical leaflets 13-30 x 0.6-4.8 cm, distal leaflets widely spaced, basal leaflets small, leaflet surfaces with very few bristles 0.6-2 mm on adaxial surface of mid-rib and other major veins, leaflet margins unarmed or with very few bristles 0.5-2.5 mm near apex, with indumentum as on sheath sometimes present on both surfaces of leaflet base, transverse veinlets inconspicuous; cirrus 80-160 cm, cirrus grapnel spines arranged regularly. Staminate inflorescence limited material seen, similar to pistillate inflorescence, but branched to 3 orders, bracts on primary and secondary branches funnel-shaped; rachillae 3-44 x 0.5-2 mm, sublinear, glabrous; rachilla bracts c. 0.6 x 1.2 mm, distichous, glabrous; floral bracteole 0.6 x 1 mm. Staminate flowers not seen. Pistillate inflorescence, up to c. 4 m long including 27-72.5 cm peduncle and 25-90 cm sterile tip, branched to 2 orders, usually inserted near to sheath apex, but sometimes emerging from sheath mouth; prophyll 16-33.5 x 1.6-2.3 cm, strictly tubular, with 2 conspicuous keels, prophyll mouth entire, with acute, triangular limb to one side, sometimes subtending primary branch, indumentum as on sheath, lightly to moderately armed with short spines; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts 9.5-38 x 0.6-2.1 cm, similar to prophyll, unarmed to moderately armed as prophyll; primary branches 6-9, to 70 cm long, 19-32 cm apart, strongly recurving, with up to 43 rachillae, bracts on primary branch funnel-shaped; rachillae 4-20 x 0.2 cm, sublinear or arcuate; rachilla bracts 1.5 x 1.7-2 mm, subdistichous, with scattered scales as sheath; flower clusters rarely distinctly stalked, stalk to c. 1.5 mm long, proximal floral bracteole obscured by distal bracteole, distal floral bracteole 1.5-1.6 x 1.6-1.7 mm, glabrous, scar from sterile staminate flower c. 0.2 mm diam. Pistillate flowers 4-4.5 x 2.5 mm shortly after anthesis; calyx 2.5 mm diam., tubular in basal 1.7-3.5 mm, with 3 lobes to 0.7-0.8 x 1-1.5 mm, glabrous; corolla 2-3.3 x 2 mm, tubular in basal 0.7-1.7 mm, with 3 lobes 1.3-1.6 x 1.5 mm, glabrous; staminodes 6, c. 0.8 mm long, staminodal ring c. 1 mm high; ovary c. 2 x 2 mm, globose, style c. 0.5 mm long, stigmas c. 1 mm long. Sterile staminate flowers not seen. Fruit globose, 10-15 x 8.5-13.5 mm including beak 1.5-2 mm, with 16-19 longitudinal rows of light green to white, shallowly chanelled scales with entire, but uneven margins. Seed (sarcotesta removed) 7.3-8 x 7-9.5 x 6-8 mm, globose, with a deep, narrow pit on one side, the surface covered with numerous deep pits and irregular channels; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal or sub-basal. Fig. 1.
    Diagnostic
    a ceteris speciebus C. aruensi affinis, sed spinis vaginarum foliorum flexilibus triangularibus basin valde tumidis, foliolis plerumque geminatis recedit
    Distribution
    Known from scattered records throughout mainland New Guinea with one collection from New Ireland
    Vernacular
    Hele bu (Yali), kour (Biaru), kur (Karkar), mambile (Yali), meya (Arfak Plains), tendu mundu (Berap)
    [PW]
    Use
    Cane used for making bridges and waist hoops, split cane for general cordage, for making arrows and bow strings, and for fire-making

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bismarck Archipelago, New Guinea

    Calamus pachypus W.J.Baker, Bayton, J.Dransf. & Maturb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 28, 2008 Klappa, S. [49], Papua New Guinea K000525998
    Aug 17, 2006 Salas, L. [KP169], Papua New Guinea K000209660
    Nov 15, 2002 Heatubun, C. [377], Indonesia K000030677
    Apr 18, 2002 Milliken, W. [1435], Indonesia K000030494
    Apr 18, 2002 Heatubun, C. [288], Indonesia K000112501
    Apr 18, 2002 Mogea, J.P. [6245], Indonesia K000112693
    Apr 18, 2002 Dransfield, J. [JD7600], Irian Jaya K000030476 holotype
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [659], Papua New Guinea K000030497
    Apr 18, 2002 Croft, J. [LAE65582], Papua New Guinea K000030493
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [47], Indonesia K000030475
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [46], Indonesia K000030477
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM644], Indonesia K000114368
    Apr 18, 2002 Upessy [7], Indonesia K000030498
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36248], Papua New Guinea K000030495
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36248], Papua New Guinea K000525499
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36248], Papua New Guinea K000525500
    Apr 18, 2002 Zieck, J.F.U. [NGF36248], Papua New Guinea K000525501
    Apr 18, 2002 Taurereko [209], Papua New Guinea K000030496
    Apr 18, 2002 Desianto, B. [BD07], Indonesia K000114395

    First published in Kew Bull. 58: 361 (2003)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2004). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-54382. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • W.J. Baker & R.P Bayton & J. Dransfield & R.A Maturbongs, A revision of the Calamus aruensis (Arecaceae) complex in New Guinea and the Pacific. 2003

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0