1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus dasyacanthus W.J.Baker, Bayton, J.Dransf. & Maturb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is New Guinea.

    [PW]
    Distribution
    Known from three localities, two on the south coast of New Guinea and the third on Biak
    Conservation
    Data deficient
    Biology
    Various types of primary and secondary forest vegetations, 30 – 150 m.
    Diagnostic
    C. aruensi affinis sed spinis vaginarum foliorum numerosis laceratis fimbriatisque, spinis cirri regulariter dispositis statim distinguenda
    Vernacular
    Warar (Biak)
    General Description
    Robust, solitary rattan climbing to 15 m. Stem with sheaths 36 – 45 mm diam., without sheaths 20 – 23 mm diam.; internodes 10 – 25 cm. Leaf cirrate, to 5 m long including cirrus and petiole; sheath green, with scattered, thin, caducous indumentum of matted brown fibrous scales, spines numerous, 2.5 – 47 × 1 – 10 mm, orange-brown, planar, parallel-sided, flexible, somewhat papery, apices truncate, apices and margins distinctly lacerate and fimbriate, spine bases slightly swollen adaxially, spines of various sizes, forming partial whorls of few to many spines, sheath mouth densely armed with numerous spines; knee 50 – 70 mm long, 37 – 45 mm wide, moderately to densely armed, colour and indumentum as on sheath; ocrea 8 – 10 mm, forming a low, woody, brown, armed, persistent collar, base of ocrea extending along petiole to an acute angle; flagellum absent; petiole 0 – 30 mm, 16 – 23 mm wide and 8 – 10 mm thick at base, channelled or flat adaxially, rounded abaxially, indumentum as on sheath, with few to many short triangular spines or spines as sheath; rachis 2 – 3 m, with few to many spines as petiole, with grapnel spines abaxially; leaflets 14 – 25 each side of rachis, irregular or arranged in widely spaced pairs, the leaflets in each pair sometimes slightly divergent, broadly lanceolate, cucullate, longest leaflets near middle of leaf, 28.5 – 40 × 4 – 6.8 cm, apical leaflets 20.5 – 29 × 2 – 3 cm, distal leaflets widely spaced, basal leaflets small, leaflet surfaces lightly armed with few bristles 0.8 – 2 mm on adaxial surface of mid-rib and major veins near leaflet base, leaflet margins unarmed or with few bristles 0.3 – 2.6 mm near leaflet apex, transverse veinlets inconspicuous; cirrus 1.5 – 2 m, cirrus grapnel spines arranged regularly. Staminate inflorescence similar to pistillate inflorescence, but branched to 3 orders, up to 1.3 m long including c. 27.5 cm peduncle, branched to 3 orders; prophyll c. 28 × 1.3 cm, strictly tubular, with 2 conspicuous keels, prophyll mouth entire, with narrow, acute, triangular limb to one side, subtending primary branch (always?), indumentum as on sheath, moderately armed with short spines; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts not seen; primary branches up to c. 28 cm long, strongly recurving, bracts on primary and secondary branches funnel-shaped; rachillae c. 4.5 – 21 × 1 mm, sublinear, glabrous; rachilla bracts c. 0.7 × 1.2 mm, distichous, glabrous; floral bracteole c. 0.8 × 1.2 mm. Staminate flowers c. 3.6 × 2.2 mm in early bud; calyx c. 2.2 mm diam., tubular in basal c. 1.4 mm, with 3 lobes c. 0.4 × 1.5 mm, glabrous; corolla c. 3.2 × 2 mm in bud, tubular in basal c. 0.8 mm, glabrous; stamens 6, filaments c. 1.2 × 0.3 mm, anthers c. 1.5 × 0.7 mm; pistillode c. 0.3 mm. Pistillate inflorescence up to 2 m long including 26 – 44 cm peduncle and 31 – 48 cm sterile tip; prophyll 21 – 27 × 1.4 – 2.2 cm, similar to staminate prophyll, sometimes subtending primary branch; peduncular bracts absent, rachis bracts 9 – 30 × 0.6 – 1.6 cm, similar to prophyll; primary branches 4 – 8, to 36 cm long, 11 – 23 cm apart, moderately to strongly recurving, with up to 27 rachillae, bracts on primary branch funnel-shaped; rachillae 3.5 – 15.5 × 0.1 – 0.2 cm, sublinear or irregular; rachilla bracts 0.8 – 1.5 × 1 – 2.2 mm, subdistichous, sometimes with scattered indumentum as on sheath; flower clusters sometimes distinctly stalked, stalk 0.3 – 1.5 mm long, proximal floral bracteole c. 1.6 × 1.2, distal floral bracteole 1.5 – 1.8 × 1.2 – 2 mm, glabrous, scar from sterile staminate flower c. 0.2 mm diam. Pistillate flowers c. 3.7 × 2.2 mm at anthesis; calyx c. 2.2 mm diam., tubular in basal c. 2.7 mm, with 3 lobes to c. 0.5 × 1 mm, glabrous; corolla c. 3 × 1.5 mm, tubular in basal c. 2 mm, with 3 lobes to c. 1 × 0.7 mm, glabrous; staminodes 6, c. 0.8 mm long, staminodal ring c. 1 mm high; ovary c. 1.5 × 1.2 mm, globose, style c. 1 mm long, stigmas c. 1 mm long. Sterile staminate flowers not seen. Fruit globose, 9 – 12.8 × 8.5 – 10 mm including beak 1.5 – 2 mm, with 18 – 19 longitudinal rows of white to pale yellow, shallowly channelled scales with entire margins, sometimes with dark tips. Seed (sarcotesta removed) 7 – 7.8 × 7 – 7.8 × 5.6 – 6 mm, globose, with a deep, narrow pit on one side, the surface covered with numerous deep pits and irregular channels; endosperm homogeneous; embryo basal. Fig. 2.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    New Guinea

    Calamus dasyacanthus W.J.Baker, Bayton, J.Dransf. & Maturb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [WJB827], Irian Jaya K000030473 holotype
    Apr 18, 2002 Baker, W.J. [983], Indonesia K000030474
    Apr 18, 2002 Maturbongs, R.A. [RAM687], Indonesia K000114360

    First published in Kew Bull. 58: 364 (2003)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (2004). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-54382. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    • W.J. Baker & R.P Bayton & J. Dransfield & R.A Maturbongs, A revision of the Calamus aruensis (Arecaceae) complex in New Guinea and the Pacific. 2003

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0