1. Family: Proteaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Banksia L.f.
      1. Banksia integrifolia L.f.

        Coast banksia is an attractive shrub or tree with upright, cylindrical heads of pale yellow flowers, suitable for coastal planting in frost-free, temperate areas. Flowering occurs from April to September, and sporadically at other times. Several distinct subspecies are recognized.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Coast banksia is an open tree or large shrub with smooth-edged leaves when mature, and heads of pale yellow flowers. In some forms, the leaf edges are wavy.

    Coast banksia is an attractive shrub or tree with upright, cylindrical heads of pale yellow flowers, suitable for coastal planting in frost-free, temperate areas. Flowering occurs from April to September, and sporadically at other times. Several distinct subspecies are recognized.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Native to Eastern Australia (south-eastern Queensland, eastern New South Wales, Victoria and Tasmania), coast banksia grows on coastal hills and in scrub down to sea level. Its range also extends to the fringes of rainforest and cloud forest on tablelands and peaks in the Great Dividing Range. As such, coast banksia has one the largest altitudinal, latitudinal and ecological ranges of all the Banksiaspecies (of which there are more than 70).

    Although the species itself is not threatened, one of its subspecies ( B. integrifolia subsp. integrifolia) is presumed extinct in Tasmania, possibly as a result of heavy grazing and burning.

    Description

    Overview:  Banksia integrifolia is normally a tree growing up to 20 m tall, but can be reduced to a congested shrub in exposed coastal sites.

    Leaves: The leaves are borne alternately on the stem, scattered or loosely whorled. They are evergreen, linear to oblanceolate or obovate, greyish-green above, silvery beneath, entire or with a few teeth towards the tip, 5-15 cm long and 2-7 cm wide. 

    Flowers: The inflorescence is 5-15 cm long, upright and cylindrical. The flowers are pale yellow, crowded, paired in conspicuous vertical rows when in bud, and curved upwards when opening. The flowers are visited by a range of insects, birds (such as honeyeaters), and mammals, including the eastern pygmy-possum. Experiments have shown that fruit set is reduced when birds and mammals are prevented from visiting the flowers, indicating that these animals play a role in pollination.

    Fruits: The fruit is cone-like, with scattered fertile capsules, which open with two rounded, woody lips.

    Seeds: The winged seeds are flattish and black. Unlike most other species in the genus, B. integrifolia does not require bushfires to trigger the release of the seeds from the fruit.

    Named in honour of Sir Joseph Banks

    The genus Banksiawas named in honour of Sir Joseph Banks (1743-1820), who collected specimens of coast banksia whilst on Captain Cook’s circumnavigation of the globe in the Endeavourin 1768-71. After returning to England, Banks came to recognise that the country needed a large, scientific garden, and became influential in transforming the Royal Gardens at Kew into a world-class botanic garden. Working alongside William Aiton, and his son William Townsend Aiton, Banks acted as unofficial director of Kew, using his numerous contacts to build up a very large collection of plants from around the world.

    Uses

    Coast banksia is planted as an ornamental, and is popular in Australian gardens and as a street tree. It is particularly suited to coastal planting as it tolerates salt spray to a certain extent, and is used for beach reclamation and to provide shelter.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds:Average 1,000 seed weight = 13.67 gNumber of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:TwoSeed storage behaviour:Orthodox? (the seeds of this plant survive drying without significant reduction in their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB)

    Cultivation

    Banksia integrifoliais one of the easiest banksias to cultivate, growing well on both deep sandy soils and on clay. Hardier forms can tolerate some frost and will grow outdoors in coastal areas of southwest England, where it is best grown with as much winter sun as possible. Propagation is best by seed.

    This species at Kew

    At Kew, coast banksia can be seen growing in the Temperate House.

    Samples of wood from Banksia integrifolia are held in the behind-the-scenes Economic Botany Collection at Kew, where they are made available to researchers by appointment.

    Australia Landscape - Kew at the British Museum

    In 2011, Kew and the British Museum brought to the heart of London a landscape showcasing the rich biodiversity of Australia, and how these fragile systems are under threat from land usage and climate change.

    Banksia integrifolia(coast banksia) was one of 12 star plants featured in the Landscape, which took you on a journey across a whole continent, from eastern Australia’s coastal habitat, through the arid red centre, to the western Australian granite outcrop featuring unique and highly endangered plants.

    Australia Landscape was part of the Australian season at the British Museum. Supported by Rio Tinto.

    Distribution
    Australia
    Ecology
    From coastal hills and scrub, to the fringes of rainforest and cloud forest in montane areas.
    Conservation
    Not threatened.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, habitat restoration.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    New South Wales, Queensland

    Common Names

    English
    Coast banksia

    Banksia integrifolia L.f. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Suppl. Pl.: 127 (1782)

    Accepted in:

    • [2] Govaerts, R. (1996) World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    • [1] Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: A Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd Ed. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
    • [3] Thiele, K. & Ladiges, P.Y. (1994). The Banksia integrifolia L.f. species complex (Proteaceae). Aust. Syst. Bot. 7: 393-408.
    • [4] Cunningham, S.A. (1991). Experimental evidence for pollination of Banksia spp. by non-flying mammals. Oecologia 87: 86-90.
    • [5] Elliot, W.R. & Jones, D.L. (1982). Encyclopedia of Australian Plants Suitable for Cultivation Volume 2. Lothian, Melbourne, Sydney, Auckland.
    • [6] Desmond, R. (1977). Dictionary of British and Irish Horticulturists. Taylor and Francis Ltd, London.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0