1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Kohautia Cham. & Schltdl.
      1. Kohautia coccinea Royle

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa, Yemen, Iran to Nepal.

    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:1. 1989

    Habit
    Annual erect unbranched to sparsely branched herbs 5–45(70) cm. tall; stems ± papillate.
    Leaves
    Leaves (9.2)12–55(65) x (0.5)1.1–4(4.9) mm., linear to linear-lanceolate, margins and lower midrib papillate, lower surface scabrid or glabrous, apex acute, narrowed to the base; stipular sheath (0.2)0.7–2.8(3.8) mm. long, stipular lobes (0.5)0.8–3.7(6.7) mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences ± many-flowered, 2 flowers at a node, one ± sessile, the other pedicellate; peduncles (3.2)6.8–11.9(16.5) mm. long, papillate; (pseudo-) pedicels (0.6)1–3.6(6.7) mm. long, densely papillate.
    Calyx
    Calyx tube (1.2)1.4–2.2(2.5) x (0.9)1.1–1.6(1.8) mm., ellipsoid, densely papillate; lobes (1.4)1.8–4.2(5.1) mm. long and (0.2)0.3–0.5(0.75) mm. wide at the base, narrowly triangular to linear, margins scabrid.
    Corolla
    Corolla lobes above scarlet, red, orange, pink, lilac or rarely light blue and very infrequently white, paler beneath with dark venation, intrusions between lobes paler or white; tube greenish red to purplish white, tube and lobes beneath sparsely papillate, tube often slightly bent, altogether (2.4)3–5(5.5) mm. long, the dilated part (1.3)1.6–2.6(3) x (0.4)0.5–0.9(1.1) mm., the narrow part (0.2)0.3–0.7(0.8) mm. wide; lobes (1.4)1.5–4.3(5.6) x (0.8)0.9–2.3(2.5) mm., oblong-elliptic, subacute.
    Anthers
    Anthers narrowly ovoid, c. 1–2 mm. long; pollen (3)4–5-colporate.
    Pistil
    Style and stigma as long as narrow part of the tube; stigma lobes 0.8–1.8 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules (2.1)2.6–5(5.2) x (2.3)2.8–4.3(4.7) mm., oblong-elliptic, scabrid to sparsely papillose, ribs often purplish.
    Seeds
    Seeds light brown, c. 0.4–0.5 mm. long, angular-subconic.
    [FWTA]

    Rubiaceae, F. N. Hepper & R. W. J. Keay. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Slender erect herb a few inches to 1 ft. high, with few branches
    Flowers
    Flowers few in lax inflorescences, bright scarlet, sometimes pink, mauve or white
    Ecology
    In cultivated ground.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Annual erect, unbranched or sparsely branched herb 7–45(–70) cm. tall, the stems scabridulous with small white papillae.
    Leaves
    Leaves linear or linear-lanceolate, 1–7.7 cm. long, 1–8 mm. wide, acute at the apex, narrowed at the base, ± smooth or sometimes scabridulous above; stipular sheath 1–3 mm. long, produced into 2–6 filiform fimbriae 1.5–3(–5) mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences spike-like, raceme-like or in well-grown specimens distinctly monochasial or dichasial, rarely reduced to 2 flowers; peduncles 0.8–4 cm. long; pedicels or apparent pedicels (sometimes 1-flowered branchlets simulate pedicellate flowers) 0.5–7(–15) mm. long, densely scabridulous.
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube ellipsoid, ± 1.2–1.5 mm. long, densely papillate; lobes linear, 1.8–5.2(–7) mm. long, ± 0.25 mm. wide, scabridulous.
    Corolla
    Corolla variously coloured, the limb usually pink, scarlet-pink or crimson-purple but paler beneath, the venation often purplish black or dark red, the tube usually greenish with a red tinge or sometimes yellowish, mostly white at the throat (one note says some specimens can have all white flowers but this may be an error, likewise the one which states pale blue); corolla scabridulous or rarely glabrous outside; tube often bent, narrowly cylindrical, 2–6 mm. long, the widened part 1.2–3.7 mm. long, 0.7–1.3 mm. wide; lobes (3–)4(–5), oblong-elliptic, 1.5–4.5(–7.5) mm. long, 0.5–2.3(–4) mm. wide, subacute.
    Pistil
    Style 1.2–1.5 mm. long; stigmata 1–1.2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong-ellipsoid, 3–5.5 mm. tall, 2.5–4.5 mm. wide, the beak slightly raised, usually scabridulous.
    Seeds
    Seeds darkbrown, irregularly angular, 0.3 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Grassland, including seasonally wet areas, grassland with scattered trees, woodland edges, gravel paths, waste ground, shallow soil on rock outcrops and also as a weed in cultivated fields, by roadsides, etc.; 880–2400 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T4 T7 T8 U1 U2 U3

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Burundi, Cameroon, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Iran, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, West Himalaya, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Kohautia coccinea Royle appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1950 Schimper [1902], Ethiopia K000414255
    Jan 1, 1950 Carson, A. [33], Zambia K000414363 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1950 Carson, A. [107], Zambia K000414364 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1950 Parkyns, M. [s.n.], Ethiopia K000414256
    Royle, H.B. [s.n.], India K000031888 Unknown type material
    Royle, H.B. [s.n.], India K000031889 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000740603

    First published in Ill. Bot. Himal. Mts.: 241 (1839)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Neupane, S., Dessein, S. & Motley, T.J. (2009). The Hedyotis-Oldenlandia-Kohautia complex (Rubiaceae) in Nepal: A study of fruit, seed and pollen characters and their taxonomic significance Edinburgh Journal of Botany 66: 371-390.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Bremek. in Verb. K. Nederl. Akad. Wetensch., Afd., Natuurk., sect. 2, 48: 82.
    • Ill. Himal. 241, t. 53, fig. 1 (1839)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Ruhsam, M in Ruhsam, M. (2005). Survey of all the Rubiaceae specimens at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 398, fig. (1974).
    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 210 (1963).
    • Bremek. in Verh. K. Nederl. Akad. Wet., Afd. Natuurk., ser. 2, 48 (2): 82 (1952).
    • Royle, Ill. Himal.: 241, t. 53/1 (1835).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0