1. Family: Rubiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Rothmannia Thunb.
      1. Rothmannia whitfieldii (Lindl.) Dandy

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Rubiaceae, D.M.Bridson & B.Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 5:3. 2003

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 1.8–8.5(15) m tall; young stems pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf blades (9)10–29 × 3.5–13 cm, elliptic to obovate, acuminate at apex, cuneate at base, coriaceous, glabrous above, pubescent to ± glabrous beneath; domatia absent; petioles 7–21 mm long, puberulous or glabrescent; stipules triangular, acuminate, 2–6 mm long, pubescent, deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers sweet-scented, solitary, pendent; peduncle 5–25 mm long, reddish pubescent, bearing 2–6 acute triangular bracteoles 2.5–3 mm long.
    Calyx
    Calyx golden- or reddish-brown pubescent; tube 10-grooved when dry, 6–13 mm long; limb-tube 7–23 mm long, wider than the tube; lobes linear, 0.9–5(8) × 0.15–0.4 cm, ± equal.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, golden pubescent outside when dry; tube narrowly cylindrical below, funnel-shaped above, 5.3–23 cm long, the funnel-shaped portion 2–7.8 cm long and 2.6–8.2 cm wide at the top, the cylindrical part 4–8 mm wide, glabrous or pubescent within the funnel-shaped portion, pubescent within the cylindrical portion; lobes 1.6–6.8 × 1.6–5.8(8) cm, ovate, acute or rounded, creamish tomentose above, overlapping to the left in bud.
    Anthers
    Anthers included or with tips exserted, 2.7–4.5 cm long.
    Style
    Style 7.5–18.5 cm long, abruptly widened at the top.
    Pollen presenter
    Pollen presenter large, 3–7.5 × 0.6–1.1 cm, distinctly bilobed at apex, wholly or partly exserted.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2.8–7 cm in diameter, globose, smooth or strongly 10-ribbed, rusty pubescent when young, ± glabrous later on, crowned by the persistent calyx limb.
    Seeds
    Seeds c. 0.7–1.1 cm long, c. 3–4 mm thick, ± sublenticular.
    [FTEA]

    Rubiaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1976

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree 1.8–8.4(–15?) m. tall; young stems pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades elliptic to obovate, (9–)10–29 cm. long, 3.5–13 cm. wide, acuminate at apex, cuneate at base, coriaceous, glabrous above, pubescent to ± glabrous beneath; domatia absent; petioles 0.7–2.1 cm. long, puberulous or glabrescent; stipules triangular, acuminate, 2–6 mm. long, pubescent, deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers sweetly scented, solitary, pendent, terminal above a single leaf; peduncle 0.5–2.5 cm. long, reddish pubescent, bearing 2–6 acute triangular bracteoles 2.5–3 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx golden or reddish brown pubescent; tube 10-grooved when dry, 0.6–1.3 cm. long; limb-tube 0.7–2.3 cm. long, wider than the tube; lobes linear, 0.9–5(–7.9) cm. long, 1.5–4 mm. wide, ± equal.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, or rarely said to be purple spotted, golden pubescent outside when dry; tube narrowly cylindrical below, funnel-shaped above, 5.3–23 cm. long, the funnel-shaped portion 2–7.8 cm. long, 2.6–8.2 cm. wide at top, 4–8 mm. wide at base, glabrous or pubescent within funnel-shaped portion, pubescent within cylindrical portion; lobes overlapping to left in bud, ovate, 1.6–6.8 cm. long, 1.6–5.8(–8) cm. wide, acute or rounded, creamish tomentose above.
    Anthers
    Anthers included or with tips exserted, 2.7–4.5 cm. long.
    Pistil
    Style 7.5–18.5 cm. long, abruptly widened at the stigma; stigma large, wholly or partly exserted, 3–7.5 cm. long, 0.6–11 mm. wide, distinctly bilobed at apex.
    Fruits
    Fruit globose, 2.8–7 cm. in diameter, smooth or strongly 10-ribbed, rusty pubescent when young, ± glabrous later on, crowned by a persistent calyx-limb.
    Seeds
    Seeds ± sublenticular, ± 0.7–1.1 cm. long, ± 3–4 mm. thick.
    Habitat
    Forest; (700–)1050–1675 m.
    Distribution
    T7 T8 U1 U2 U4 throughout west tropical Africa, the Zaire basin, Sudan, Malawi, Zambia and Angola
    [FWTA]

    Rubiaceae, F. N. Hepper & R. W. J. Keay. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A shrub or tree, 6-40 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant with the corolla white inside brownish-velvety outside, pendulous
    Fruits
    Fruit 10-ridged or nearly smooth, yielding an inky black dye
    Ecology
    In forest vegetation, including forest outliers in the savanna regions.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Liberia, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Rothmannia whitfieldii (Lindl.) Dandy appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2819], Cameroon K000518653
    Jun 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5228], Cameroon K000337975
    Dec 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [4775], Cameroon K000746549
    Jan 1, 1996 Sonké, B. [1092], Cameroon K000540861
    Jan 1, 1996 Tchouto (Mbatchou), P. [1171], Cameroon K000540859
    Jan 1, 1995 Cable, S. [1491], Cameroon K000086411
    Jan 1, 1994 Baker, W.J. [276], Cameroon K000540856
    Jan 1, 1992 Wheatley, J.I. [293], Cameroon K000540862
    Jan 1, 1992 Sunderland, T.C.H. [1109], Cameroon K000540857
    Jan 1, 1992 Watts, J. [243], Cameroon K000086412
    Jan 1, 1992 Ndam, N. [500], Cameroon K000540858
    Feb 15, 1956 Sierra Leone K000414789
    Feb 15, 1956 Heudelot [809] K000414791
    Feb 15, 1956 Whitfield [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000414788 isotype
    Sierra Leone K000414790
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2798], Zambia 22139.000
    Brenan, J.P.M. [9179], Nigeria 8571.000
    Troupin, G. [3692], Congo, DRC 6289.000

    First published in F.W.Andrews, Fl. Pl. Anglo-Egypt. Sudan 2: 461 (1952)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For, C. Iv., ed. 2, 3: 276, t. 352B.
    • in F. W. Andr. Fl. Pl. A.-E. Sud. 2: 461, fig. 165 (1952)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. (2007). The Rubiaceae of Cabinda (Angola) Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 154: 455-495.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Hallé in Fl.Gabon 17, Rubiacées, 2: 252, t. 59/7–10 (1970).
    • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 126, fig. 227 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 419 (1962).
    • Keay in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique de l'État a Bruxelles 28: 55 (1958).
    • Dandy in F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 461, fig. 165 (1952).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0