1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Vachellia Wight & Arn.
      1. Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso & Banfi

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa, Sinai to Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, J.P.M. Brenan. Flora Zambesiaca 3:1. 1970

    Habit
    Tree 4-21 m. high, occasionally (probably not in our area) a bush 1 m. high; crown flat or spreading;10 bark grey to black, fissured; young branchlets glabrous to densely pubescent, going brown to purplish-black.
    Stipules
    Stipules spinescent, some short ± hooked and up to c. 5 mm. long, mixed with other long straight whitish ones to c. 8(10) cm. long; “ant-galls” and other prickles absent.
    Leaves
    Leaves; rhachis short, 2 cm. long or less; pinnae 2-10 pairs, 2-17 mm. long; leaflets 6-19 pairs per pinna, usually very small, 0.5-2.5(6) mm. long, ciliate to glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers cream or whitish, in axillary heads 5-10 mm. in diam. on peduncles 0.4-2.4 cm. long; involucel in the lower half of the peduncle.
    Fruits
    Pods contorted or spirally twisted, longitudinally veined, tomentellous to glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds olive- to red-brown, 7 x 4.5-6 mm., smooth, elliptic, compressed; areole 5-6 x 3-4 mm.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Sahara regional transition zone; woodland., Zambezian woodland, Somalia-Masai bushland and thicket, Kalahari-Highveld regional transition zone; wooded grassland., Sudanian woodland, Karroo-Namib shrubland, Sahel regional transition zone - wooded g
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Shrub/Tree
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Tree 4–21 m. high, occasionally (probably not in our area) a bush 1 m. high; crown flat or spreading;bark grey to black, fissured.
    Branches
    Young branchlets glabrous to densely pubescent, going brown to purplish-black.
    Stipules
    Stipules spinescent, some short ± hooked and up to about 5 mm. long, mixed with other long straight whitish ones to about 8(–10) cm. long; “ant-galls” and other prickles absent.
    Leaves
    Leaves:rhachis short, 2 cm. long or less; pinnae 2–10 pairs, 2–17 mm. long; leaflets 6–19 pairs per pinna, usually very small, 0.5–2.5(–6) mm. long, ciliate to glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers cream or whitish, in axillary heads 5–10 mm. in diameter on peduncles 0.4–2.4 cm. long.
    Fruits
    Pods contorted or spirally twisted, longitudinally veined, tomentellous to glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds olive- to red-brown, smooth, elliptic, compressed, 7 mm. long, 4.5–6 mm. wide; areole 5–6 mm. long, 3–4 mm. wide.
    Distribution
    Algeria to Egypt (? Palestine) and Arabia southwards to South Africa
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Chemical products, Environmental, Food and Drink, Forage, Medicine, Miscellaneous, Wood

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Chad, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gulf States, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Palestine, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sinai, Socotra, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Western Sahara, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    India, Madagascar, Pakistan

    Common Names

    English
    Curly-pod acacia, Umberella thorn

    Vachellia tortilis (Forssk.) Galasso & Banfi appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 9, 1951 Deflers [336], Saudi Arabia Acacia tortilis K000791111
    Schweinfurth, G. [1966], Sudan Acacia tortilis K000244225
    Schweinfurth, G. [19], Yemen Acacia tortilis K000791113
    Schweinfurth, G. [601], Yemen Acacia tortilis K000791114
    Nader, I.A. [306], Saudi Arabia Acacia tortilis 48906.000
    Nader, I.A. [307], Saudi Arabia Acacia tortilis 48916.000
    Rico, L. [1836], Tunisia Acacia tortilis K000296054
    Deflers [510], Yemen Acacia tortilis K000791112

    First published in Atti Soc. Ital. Sci. Nat. Mus. Civico Storia Nat. Milano 149: 150 (2008)

    Accepted by

    • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Musselman, L.J. (2011). Checklist of Plants of Lebanon and Syria http://ww2.odu.edu/~lmusselm/plant/lebsyria/Checklist%20of%20Lebanon%20Plants.pdf.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Brenan, J.P.M. (1970). Flora Zambesiaca 3(1): 1-153. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/