1. Family: Melastomataceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Warneckea Gilg
      1. Warneckea austro-occidentalis R.D.Stone

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Nigeria to Cameroon.

    [KBu]

    Stone, R.D., Ghogue, JP. & Cheek, M. 2009. Warneckea austro-occidentalis, a new species from Cameroon and Nigeria, and re-evaluation of W. fascicularis var. mangrovensis (Melastomataceae-Olisbeoideae). Kew Bulletin 64: 307. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s1

    Type
    Cameroon, South West Province, Bolo forest, near Konye, 5 km W of Kumba-Mamfe road, 4°55′N, 9°36′E, alt. 300 m, mature and secondary forest, fls., 21 April 1986, Nemba & Thomas 1 (holotypus MO; isotypi BR, CAS, K, M, P, YA).
    Habit
    Trees 6 – 20 m tall
    Branches
    Branches slender, bark whitish, of the branchlets reddish brown, the youngest terete in cross section but somewhat compressed and grooved on each face just below the proximal node; internodes (4 –) 5.5 – 11 (– 15.5) cm long
    Leaves
    Leaves on petioles (5 –) 7 – 10 (– 12) mm long, the petioles quadrangular or narrowly 2-winged when young, becoming stout (up to 3 mm wide) and subligneous with age Blades subcoriaceous, shining on both upper and lower surfaces, broadly ovate to broadly elliptic or broadly obovate, (11 –) 12 – 19 (– 23) cm long, (6.7 –) 7.5 – 10 (– 12) cm wide, base broadly cuneate to sometimes rounded (never cordate!), apex broadly short-acuminate and acute; midnerve and principal lateral nerves impressed on the upper surface, prominent on the lower, the lateral nerves diverging from the midnerve c. 5 – 10 mm above the base of the blade, curvilinear except near the leaf apex where forming weak arches between the junctions with the transverse veins; secondary lateral nerves 1 pair (rarely 2 pairs), much thinner than the principal laterals, intramarginal and weakly arched for their entire length; transverse veins 8 – 12 pairs, of about the same thickness as the secondary laterals, somewhat prominent on both surfaces along with the conspicuous network of smaller venules.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 5 – 10 long-pedunculate, many-flowered cymes fascicled at the thickened nodes of older branches (never in the leaf axils or at recently defoliated nodes); peduncles (0.8 –) 1.7 – 3.2 (– 3.8) cm long, compressed or sometimes quadrangular below the apex; secondary axes reduced (the inflorescence thus subumbellate); bracts and bracteoles c. 2 mm long, lance-ovate, cucullate, deciduous. Flowers often 20 – 30 per inflorescence, borne on slender pedicels 5 – 7 mm long (becoming thicker and 8 – 11 mm long in fruit); hypantho-calyx campanulate, 3 × 3 mm, the lobes triangular-acute, with thin margin
    Corolla
    Corolla conical in bud; petals white, elliptic-unguiculate, c. 3 mm long and 1.5 – 2 mm wide
    Stamens
    Stamens with slender filaments c. 2 mm long; anthers 1.5 mm long, the connective blue, strongly incurved by the oblong gland occupying almost the entire length on the dorsal side; thecae yellow
    Style
    Style 5 mm long; epigynous chamber with eight very faint radial ridges, otherwise smooth except for the petal and filament scars
    Fruits
    Fruits ellipsoid-ovate, 15 – 16 mm long and 10 – 11 (– 14) mm wide, lacking a persistent calycinal crown
    Distribution
    Cameroon (South West Province) and south-eastern Nigeria.
    Ecology
    Lowland evergreen forest; 5 – 250 m.
    Conservation
    AccordinglyWarneckeaaustro-occidentalis is here assessed as endangered EN B2ab(iii) in view of threats, an area of occupancy (AOO) of 20 km2 and only five historic sites being known, although it may survive at only three of them. In recent years much forest at Bimbia has been cut. Efforts over several days in March 2008 to relocate Bimbian endemics such as Ancistrocladusgrandiflorus Cheek and Cola cecidifolia Cheek by David Alicha with the herbarium team from Limbé Botanic Garden who had been involved in their discovery in the 1990s, failed to find them due to loss of habitat (Alicha pers. comm. 2008). Two sites are not far off the Kumba – Mamfe Road, scheduled for upgrading for many years. When this happens anticipated development along its length will threaten the species. Nigeria has seen large forest losses in recent decades and the survival of original forest on a plantation is unlikely. Of the five known sites of Warneckeaaustro-occidentalis, only one, inside Korup National Park, can be considered secure.
    Note
    The new Warneckea resembles the Congolian species W. pulcherrima (Gilg) Jacq.-Fél. in having long-pedunculate inflorescences fascicled at the swollen nodes of older branchlets. The two species are easily distinguished since in W. pulcherrima the leaf bases are always narrowly cordate-auriculate, never broadly cuneate to rounded as in W. austro-occidentalis. This was noted earlier by Jacques-Félix (1987, in scheda), who saw a duplicate of the specimen chosen by us as the type of W. austro-occidentalis, determining it as W. pulcherrima but “[b]asefoliaire un peudifférente.” The leaf bases of W. austro-occidentalis are more similar to the broadly rounded to subcordate ones of the West African W. memecyloides (Benth.) Jacq.-Fél., but in that species the inflorescences are on shorter peduncles (6 – 10 mm) borne in the leaf axils and at recently defoliated nodes (never at swollen nodes of older branchlets). Additional characters separating W. austro-occidentalis from both W. pulcherrima and W. memecyloides include its longer petioles (7 – 10 mm vs. 2 – 5 mm), white petals (vs. blue-violet), and larger fruit (15 – 16 × 10 – 11 mm vs. 10 – 11 × 6 – 8 mm). The epithet derives from the South West Province of Cameroon, to which this species is evidently restricted (except for one collection from adjacent Nigeria). The use of a hyphen is permitted by the code since the letters before and after it are the same (Art. 60.9, ICBN: McNeill et al.2006). Warneckea cf. memecyloidessensu Stone & Cheek in Cheek et al. (2004: 337). Warneckeaaustro-occidentalis occupies a region where the closely related species W. pulcherrima and W. memecyloides are at the margins of their respective ranges (Map 1). Jacques-Félix (1983) wrote that he had not seen any collections of W. memecyloides from Cameroon, but we are aware of one authentic specimen from South West Province, Kumba Distr., Southern Bakundu Forest Reserve, Olorunfemi FHI 30722, fr., 22 Aug. 1951 (K). Engler (1886) had previously reported W. memecyloides (as MemecylonvogeliiNaudin) from the Mungo River area of Cameroon (South West Province), but this was based on a collection by Buchholz that Gilg (1898) later referred to M. englerianumCogn. Another collection from South West Province (Rio del Rey, Johnston) was cited by Gilg (1898) under M. vogelii, but this specimen subsequently became the type of M. johnstoniiGilg ex Engl. (treated by Jacques-Félix 1983 as a synonym of M. zenkeriGilg). The specimen Cable et al. 1368, cited above as a paratype of Warneckeaaustro-occidentalis, is noteworthy for its unusually small leaves and short peduncles. Yet in other respects this collection agrees with the new species.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Nigeria

    Warneckea austro-occidentalis R.D.Stone appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 14, 2006 Nemba, J. [1], Cameroon K000050345 isotype
    Nov 1, 2006 Nemba, J. [108], Cameroon K000050347
    Jan 1, 2006 Cable, S. [1368], Cameroon K000460183

    First published in Kew Bull. 64(2): 307 (-310; fig. 1, map (2009)

    Accepted by

    • Roskov Y. & al. (eds.) (2018). Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0