1. Family: Chrysobalanaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Magnistipula Engl.
      1. Magnistipula multinervia Burgt

        Only four trees of Magnistipula multinervia are known. These stand in a remote part of Korup National Park which is sometimes visited by researchers, but to which tourists never go. Hunters from the villages surrounding the park sometimes also work in this area. The trees were found in a permanent plot of 155.75 ha established by Prof. D.M. Newbery of the Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, as part of a study of the ecology and dynamics of this forest. In total 8,931 individual trees have been identified in and near this plot, but only four of them are specimens of M. multinervia, indicating that this tree is very rare.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Magnistipula multinervia is so rare that only four trees are known, growing in a remote area deep inside Korup National Park in Cameroon.

    The trees were found in a permanent plot of 155.75 ha established by Prof. D.M. Newbery of the Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, as part of a study of the ecology and dynamics of this forest. In total 8,931 individual trees have been identified in and near this plot, but only four of them are specimens of M. multinervia, indicating that this tree is very rare.

    The name Magnistipula was given to the genus in 1905. The two species then described have large stipules, leading to the name Magnistipula. The description of M. multinervia was published by Kew botanist Xander van der Burgt in 2010. The specific epithet (multinervia) is derived from the venation of the stipules, which have up to 20 parallel, longitudinal veins.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Magnistipula multinervia is known from an area of less than 1 km² in the southern part of Korup National Park, in Cameroon, Africa, at about 100 m above sea level, in a spot with an average annual rainfall of 5,040 mm.

    Description

    Overview:  Magnistipula multinervia is a tree, growing up to 41 m high, with a trunk of up to 57 cm in diameter.

    Flowers:  It has small flowers which are greenish-light brown, with small white petals. The flowers do not fall to the ground after flowering, and the tree must therefore be climbed in order to collect herbarium specimens and to study the flowers.

    Fruits:  The fruits are the size of small apples and are eaten by red Colobus monkeys, which often take fruit to a nearby tree before consuming it. The single seed is the size of a cherry and is covered with short, prickly hairs. After eating the fruit, animals discard the prickly seed onto the ground, where it then has a chance to germinate.

    Threats and conservation

    Magnistipula multinervia is classified as Critically Endangered according to the rules of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) because fewer than 50 specimens are known.

    The four known trees of Magnistipula multinervia are located inside Korup National Park, hence are relatively well protected. However, the animal populations in the park are poorly protected against poaching and the bush meat trade puts pressure on them, in turn affecting the plant-animal interactions driving seed predation and seed dispersal. If the seeds of M. multinervia are not dispersed by animals then its ability to regenerate will be reduced.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: The seeds normally start to germinate within a week after falling to the forest floor.

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: None.

    Seed storage behaviour: The seeds soon loose their viability when stored.

    This species at Kew

    Preserved specimens of Magnistipula multinervia are held in the Herbarium, one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew. Specimens are also held in two herbaria in Cameroon, and in eight other herbaria around the world.

    Distribution
    Cameroon
    Ecology
    Primary rainforest on well-drained sandy soil.
    Conservation
    Critically Endangered (CR D) according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon

    Magnistipula multinervia Burgt appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 10, 2009 Burgt, X.M. van der [1127], Cameroon K000023179 holotype
    Sep 10, 2009 Burgt, X.M. van der [1127], Cameroon K000023177 holotype
    Sep 10, 2009 Burgt, X.M. van der [1127], Cameroon K000023178 holotype
    Sep 1, 2009 Burgt, X.M. van der [917], Cameroon K000460351
    Sep 1, 2009 Burgt, X.M. van der [934], Cameroon K000460400

    First published in Pl. Ecol. Evol. 143: 192 (2010)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • van der Burgt, X.M. (2010). Two new taxa in Magnistipula (Chrysobalanaceae) from Korup National Park, Cameroon. Pl. Ecol. Evol. 143: 191-198.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0