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This species is accepted, and its native range is W. New Guinea.


Coode, M.J.E. 2010. laeocarpus for Flora Malesiana: new taxa and understanding in the Ganitrus group. Kew Bulletin 65: 355. DOI:

Conservation Status. Since there are so few collections it must be treated as Data Deficient (DD). However, this species may be to some degree endangered.
Indonesia (West Papua).
Primary forest, sometimes disturbed; deep coarse white sand soil, sometimes coppiced from old trunks in abandoned garden; fruits eaten by cassowaries (de Vogel 9679); 60 – 450 m.
Morphology General Habit
Trees 8 – 12 ( – 30?) m high
Morphology Leaves
Leaves spirally arranged, loosely grouped towards twig tips; petioles 0.5 – 1.4 cm long, 2 – 3 mm wide and strongly flattened 'dorsiventrally', glabrous to ± persistently short-hairy (variable: Coode 8105 much less hairy), not verrucose when mature, rounded or flat above, the margins almost winged and decurrent onto twigs, merging into decurrent leaf-base, not swollen at either end or slightly so at base; blades chartaceous or coriaceous, obovate, (1.6 –) 1.9 – 2.9 (– 3.2) × as long as wide, 9 – 18 × 4 – 8.5 cm, not acuminate (occasionally minutely and broadly apiculate), obtuse to rounded (80° or more), narrowly cuneate to cuneate at base, dull above, when very young about as hairy above as beneath (Coode 8105 minutely adpressed-hairy on both sides), glabrous or with some indumentum beneath at least on main veins when mature, not or scarcely verrucose when mature, with 10 – 19 pairs of main veins (Coode 8105: 10 – 13, de Vogel 9679: 14 – 15, type: 18 – 19) at 50 – 80° to midrib, neither prominent nor impressed above, obscure (Coode 8105 with veins usually looping-interconnecting, the rest without loop-veins), midrib and main laterals prominent to strongly so beneath and breaking up ½ - ⅞ from midrib to margin, with small domatia regularly present along midribs beneath, with or without (Coode 8105) minute dark dots beneath, weakly serrate with serrations similar throughout the leaf-length; teeth 1 – 3 mm apart (Coode 8105 2 – 3 mm apart; the others 1 – 2 mm)
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules very soon caducous, seen in Coode 8105 only, triangular, minute, (0.5 – 1 mm long), entire and with hairy base and narrow indurate glabrous tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens 72 – 75, inserted into a very narrow circle wider between disk teeth, falling at the same time as sepals; filaments somewhat incurved and dorsi-ventrally flattened, 0.3 – 0.5 mm long, with a few short shining straight hairs; anthers minutely sparsely hairy, 1.7 – 2 mm long, splitting open down the sides to halfway or more, outer tooth slightly to clearly longer than inner, apex acuminate to acute, tipped with setae 0.2 – 0.5 mm
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Sepals falling at the same time as petals and stamens, narrow-ovate, c- 5.5 × 2.2 mm, not acuminate, glabrous outside but surface ± minutely papillose, mostly glabrous inside but minutely hairy towards tip and base, with a low keel inside at base fading towards tip
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Corolla
Petals thick-membranous, just translucent, narrow-obovate to oblong, narrowed at base, 6.5 – 7.2 mm long, 2.5 – 2.7 mm wide at widest point of limb, rounded to truncate at apex, divided into 10 – 12 apical divisions grouped into 3 – 4 lobes, divisions linear to very narrow-triangular, 3.5 – 4 mm long, acute at tip, petals glabrous outside or with a small patch of short hairs in the centre at base, margins of limb densely short-hairy, glabrous inside and without hairs on division margins in the sinuses, ± flat at midpoint and at base, without any infolding of margins
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary placed above the disk, c- 1 mm long, velvety, 6 – 9-locular; ovules 6 per loculus; style narrow, tapering to an abrupt tip, 5.5 – 6.5 mm long, hairy in basal half, glabrous further up
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Receptacle
Disk annular, weakly 5-toothed, minutely ± velvety
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits round, 2.5 – 3.8 cm long when dried, glabrous with mesocarp up to 1 – 3 mm thick when dried; stones round, 2.4 – 3.6 cm long, surface (after boiling and flesh picked off) ‘clean’ of fibres, sutures on surface obscure and incomplete or represented by radiating cracks, surface smooth or distantly and weakly rugose, wall 3 – 10 mm thick, depending on where the measurement made, seeds developing in (1 –) 2 – 3 radiating loculi; seeds 1 per loculus
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes well behind leaves, 6 – 7.5 cm long, axis 1 – 1.5 mm thick at about halfway, short-hairy, 25 – 35-flowered, flowers bisexual and 5-merous; bracts early caducous, none seen; pedicels 5 – 10 mm long, slender, 14 – 15 mm long in fruit; buds ovoid, acute
Morphology Twigs
Twigs hairy at tip, often persistently (sometimes hairs apparently of two lengths, short and ± adpressed with scattered longer and spreading hairs), often fairly dense or dense and scurfy-puberulous, twigs 3.5 – 5 mm thick towards the tip, the mid-line of petioles often raised beneath and decurrent onto the twig for 1 – 2 cm, with similar but lower and shorter raised lines decurrent from petiole margins; terminal buds non-resinous, hairy
Vegetatively (and in the field when sterile) it is very difficult or impossible to separate Elaeocarpus avium from E. dolichostylus var. chloranthus (see above); they both have very similar glossy intense green leaves that die brilliant scarlet. The fruit (Fig. 1F – J) shows 7 sutures, and resembles the fruit of E. ornatus (see Fig. 6K – M) except that it is far less ornamented and much more solidly lignified. It is likely to be closest to E. ornatus, sharing the large ± globose 5 – 8-sutured stones (thus 5 – 8-locular ovaries) with several seeds Other, identical, massive stones were picked up under an inaccessible tree on the Kuala Kencana Golf Course a few days later than Coode 8105. It is difficult or sometimes impossible to tell the number of locules from the outside. Notes. The field-notes state: calyx yellowish-cream, tips pale green; corolla yellowish-cream. Fruits dull to bright metallic blue. In 1998, the young tree in Kuala Kencana (Coode 7993) had leaves larger (up to 28 × 10 cm) than it had in 2000 and with more leaf-nerves (up to 17 pairs); on both occasions the leaves lacked the rounded tips and almost scurfy indumentum of the Vogelkop specimens.
Typus: Indonesia, West Papua, Kecamatan Ayfat, neighbourhood of Ayawasi, flatland between limestone hills N of Ayawasi village, 1°09'S 132°29'E, 450 m, fl. & fr. 13 Feb. 1995, K. Yumte 167 (holotypus L*!; isotypi BO, MAN?).

Native to:

New Guinea

Elaeocarpus avium Coode appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 65: 380 (2010 publ. 2011)

Accepted by

  • Govaerts, R., Nic Lughadha, E., Black, N., Turner, R. & Paton, A. (2021). The World Checklist of Vascular Plants, a continuously updated resource for exploring global plant diversity. Scientific Data 8: 215.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.