1. Family: Campanulaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Codonopsis Wall.
      1. Species: Codonopsis pilosula (Franch.) Nannf.
        1. Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen (Oliv.) D.Y.Hong

        This climbing perennial bears subtle, beautiful, bell-shaped flowers in late summer. It thrives as an ornamental in gardens of western Europe where the climate is similar to that of its home in China. The British plantsman Ernest Wilson collected seeds and specimens of Codonopsis tangshen for the nurserymen Messrs Veitch &Son, and in their book Hortus Veitchii (1906) C. tangshen is described as having been ‘raised from seed from central China, where, considered an important drug, and used amongst the very poor as a substitute for costly ginseng, it is known as t’ang-shên'.  Codonopsis tangshen is still important in traditional Chinese medicine today.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Codonopsis tangshen is an unusual climber, bearing subtle, yellowish-green, bell-shaped flowers, with purple markings on the inside; the root is used in China to make a tonic.

    This climbing perennial bears subtle, beautiful, bell-shaped flowers in late summer. It thrives as an ornamental in gardens of western Europe where the climate is similar to that of its home in China. The British plantsman Ernest Wilson collected seeds and specimens of Codonopsis tangshen for the nurserymen Messrs Veitch &Son, and in their book Hortus Veitchii (1906) C. tangshen is described as having been ‘raised from seed from central China, where, considered an important drug, and used amongst the very poor as a substitute for costly ginseng, it is known as t’ang-shên'.  Codonopsis tangshen is still important in traditional Chinese medicine today.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Native and endemic to six provinces of central and western China (Chongqing, Guizhou, Hubei, Hunan, Shaanxi and Sichuan), where it is found at elevations of 900 - 2,300 m.

    Description

    A perennial with climbing stems up to 2 m or more and long, fleshy, tuberous roots. The leaves are green and ovate. The bell-shaped flowers are pale yellowish-green, veined at the base with internal with purplish markings and measuring up to 2.3 cm long.

    Illustration from Curtis's Botanical Magazine

    The specimen of Codonopsis tangshen illustrated in Matilda Smith's hand-coloured lithograph after a watercolour painting had been received from Messrs James Veitch a few years previous to its appearance in Curtis's Botanical Magazinein 1906.

    Uses

    Codonopsis tangshenis extensively cultivated in China as a medicinal plant. The dried roots (dang shen or chuan dang shen) are used in traditional Chinese medicine as a tonic and to treat anaemia and palpitations.

    It is also grown in the West as an ornamental for its attractive bell-shaped flowers.

    Cultivation

    Codonopsis tangshen is suitable for cultivation in loose, peaty soil in sun or partial shade.

    This species at Kew

    Codonopsis tangshencan be seen growing in the Rock Garden and the Woodland Garden (the area around the Temple of Aeolus) at Kew.

    Pressed and dried specimens of Codonopsis tangshen are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details of some of these can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.

    Specimens of the roots are also held in Kew’s Economic Botany Collection.

    William Thiselton-Dyer and Kew’s Rock Garden

    In 1906, when writing the text accompanying the painting of Codonopsis tangshen in Curtis’s Botanical Magazine, William Thiselton-Dyer (Director of Kew, 1885–1905) noted that ‘a plant from the same source [Veitch] is growing in the Rockery at Kew’. The Rock Garden at Kew was an area of particular interest to Thiselton-Dyer, as he had played a large part in its design some years earlier.

    Kew’s work on authentication of economically important species

    Since the early 1990s there has been a large increase in the diversity of plant-based products entering world trade for use in cosmetics, herbal medicines (especially traditional Chinese medicines), food, potpourri, colouring agents and pet products. Kew is investigating these using a range of morphological as well as chemical and DNA fingerprinting methods to check the identity of species traded and to study whether plant-derived products contain the appropriate range of compounds for their proposed use. Over 1,000 species and over 1,500 extracts have been studied so far.

    Although the majority of traded items have proven to be of the correct species, Kew’s authentication work has uncovered a number of substitute poor quality and occasionally counterfeited species. Such herbal substitution and counterfeiting often arise due to problems of supply and demand and in such cases there is a urgent need to introduce sustainable harvesting practises or more extensive cultivation so as to remove pressures from wild populations.

    Distribution
    China
    Ecology
    On hillsides in scrub near forest margins.
    Conservation
    Not evaluated according to IUCN Red List criteria.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, medicine.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast

    Common Names

    English
    Bellflower

    Codonopsis pilosula subsp. tangshen (Oliv.) D.Y.Hong appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Novon 20: 423 (2010)

    Literature

    • [1] (2011) Flora of China 19: 1-884. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • [2] Deyuan Hong, Lammers, T. G. & Klein, L. L. (2011) Codonopsis. Flora of China 19: 513-526. (Accessed 26 October 2011).
    • [3] The Plant List (2010). Codonopsis tangshen. (Accessed 28 March 2011).
    • [4] Bown, D. (2008). The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London.
    • [5] Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, Volume 1. (English edition) China Medical Science Press, Beijing.
    • [6] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1991). Perennials, Vol. 2. Pan Books, London.
    • [7] Duke, J. A. & Ayensu, E. S. (1985). Medicinal Plants of China, Vol. 1. Reference Publications, Algonac, Michigan.
    • [8] Keys, J. D. (1976). Chinese Herbs: their Botany, Chemistry, and Pharmacodynamics. Charles E. Tuttle, Rutland, Vermont & Tokyo.
    • [9] Thiselton-Dyer, W. (1906). Codonopsis tangshen. Curtis’s Botanical Magazine 132: tab. 8090.
    • [10] Veitch, J. H. (1906). Hortus Veitchii. Privately printed; London.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0