1. Family: Bromeliaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Encholirium Mart. ex Schult. & Schult.f.
      1. Encholirium ctenophyllum Forzza & Zappi

        Encholirium ctenophyllum is a newly discovered species of bromeliad with comb-like leaves, and occurs in a very specific habitat, within an area of less than 10 km2. The population of this species is just 10 to 12 km away from another new species ( E. agavoides). These two species are cut off from one another by the steep descent to the gorge of the Rio das Pedras. This river divides the municipalities of Santana de Pirapama (where E. agavoides is found) and Santana do Riacho (where E. ctenophyllum occurs).

    [KSP]
    General Description
    This new species of bromeliad, with comb-like leaves, was discovered during conservation-based fieldwork in Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    Encholirium ctenophyllum is a newly discovered species of bromeliad with comb-like leaves, and occurs in a very specific habitat, within an area of less than 10 km2. The population of this species is just 10 to 12 km away from another new species ( E. agavoides). These two species are cut off from one another by the steep descent to the gorge of the Rio das Pedras. This river divides the municipalities of Santana de Pirapama (where E. agavoides is found) and Santana do Riacho (where E. ctenophyllum occurs).

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Encholirium ctenophyllumis restricted to the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. It is a narrow endemic (found in a very limited area), occurring only on the west slope of the Serra do Cipó. This species is found at 1,000 to 1,200 m above sea level, in populations growing on top of, or amongst, inclined arenitic/quartzitic rocks. This species is found growing alongside Cipocereus pleurocarpus, Velloziaspp. and Encholirium subsecundum.

    Of the 23 species of Encholirium, nine are restricted to the ‘campos rupestres’ of the Cadeia do Espinhaço in Minas Gerais, and seven of these are narrow endemics in the region of Diamantina and Serra do Cipó. The discovery of more narrowly endemic species in this relatively well explored area of the Cadeia do Espinhaço highlights the complexity of the micro-habitats and the high plant diversity and endemism of the ‘campos rupestres’.

    Description

    Overview: This species has rosettes of leaves up to 12 cm wide, with long leaves that are recurved (curved backwards).

    Leaves: The leaves are silvery to reddish in colour, triangular in shape and have long spines along the edges.

    Flowers: The green to yellowish flowers are borne in terminal spikes, and are densely packed at the end of the inflorescence.

    Fruits: The fruits are brown and capsular, with minute seeds. This species is thought to be pollinated by insects, and the seeds dispersed by the wind.

    Threats and conservation

    This plant is a narrow endemic (occurs only in a very limited area) and is hence vulnerable to climate change, fire and habitat destruction.

    Distribution
    Brazil
    Ecology
    Campos rupestres (montane subtropical savanna), at 1,000 to 1,200 m above sea level, on or amongst inclined arenitic/quartzitic rocks.
    Conservation
    Rated by the IUCN (International Union for Conservation of Nature) as Vulnerable (D2).
    Hazards

    The leaves of this species have long spines at the edges.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Brazil Southeast

    Encholirium ctenophyllum Forzza & Zappi appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Identified Reference Herbarium Specimen Type Status
    Forzza, R.C. [5455], Minas Gerais K000881976 isotype

    First published in Kew Bull. 66: 286 (2011)

    Literature

    • [1] Giulietti, A. M., Harley, R. M., Queiroz, L. P., Wanderley, M. G. L., Pirani, J. R. (2000). Caracterização e endemismos nos campos rupestres da Cadeia do Espinhaço. In Tópicos Atuais de Botânica (T.B. Cavalcanti & B.M.T. Walter, eds.). EMBRAPA Recursos Genéticos, Brasília, p.311-318.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    Kew Science Photographs
    [D] Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [E] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [F] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0