1. Family: Myrtaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Eugenia P.Micheli ex L.
      1. Eugenia pyrifera Faria & Proença

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Brazil (Goiás).

    [KBu]

    de Faria, J.E.Q. & Proença, C.E.B. 2012. Kew Bulletin 67: 245. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-012-9344-x

    Habit
    Shrub or treelet 1 – 4 m, pubescent or puberulous on new growth; trichomes simple, whitish when young aging pale grey or pale ochre
    Branches
    Young branches pubescent
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or ternate, linear to narrow-elliptic, 1.9 – 7.1 × 0.3 – 1.3 cm, glabrous or puberulous on the upper surface, puberulous on the lower surface; apex acute to rounded; base cuneate and decurrent on the petiole; midvein sulcate to lightly sulcate on the upper surface, glabrous to puberulous on both surfaces, with 13 – 17 pairs of lateral veins, the first pair confluent with the marginal vein; marginal vein simple or double; external marginal vein very tenuous, running 0.4 – 1.4 mm from the margin; glandular dots elevated on the upper surface; petiole 1.8 – 3.4 mm long × 0.6 – 0.8 mm, pubescent to puberulous, canaliculate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a solitary, axillary, flower or precocious, lateral, raceme (appearing together with a flush of new leaves) with 2 – 5 flowers
    Flowers
    Flower bud 6.8 – 7.5 mm long × 4.2 – 6.1 mm in diam.; bracts lanceolate, 1.2 – 2.5 mm long, deciduous soon after anthesis; pedicel 7.2 – 17.7 mm long, pubescent, bracteoles linear, apex acute to rounded, 2.4 – 5.8 mm long, free, densely pubescent, deciduous at anthesis; hypanthium densely pubescent; calyx lobes oblong, obtuse, rounded or abruptly acuminate, 4.6 – 5.7 × 2.1 – 3.9 mm, densely pubescent; petals white, obovate to spatulate, apex rounded, 6.4 – 12.8 mm long, sparsely gland-dotted; staminal disk puberulous, stamens 78 – 115, filaments 5.4 – 6.8 mm long, anthers roundish; ovary 2-locular, internally glabrous, 3 – 8 ovules per locule, style 4.8 – 10.1 mm long, puberulous, stigma puntiform, papillose
    Fruits
    Fruit somewhat pear-shaped, always attenuate at base, yellow when mature, 26.9 – 29 mm long, 15.6 – 20.1 mm diam., velutinous, glands not seen; seed 1, testamembranaceous; embryo globose, slightly flattened, not gland-dotted, cotyledons partially fused
    Distribution
    This species appears to be restricted to Northern Goiás, and has been collected in the municipalities of Minaçu, Niquelândia and Uruaçu. Map 1.
    Ecology
    Label data indicate that Eugenia pyrifera occurs in typical to dense woodland savanna (cerradosensustricto and cerradão) and in gallery forests; 350 – 500 m. Fig. 2A.
    Conservation
    Five populations of Eugenia pyrifera are known. The fifth population was collected fertile by the first author, with buds and old flowers, and is illustrated in Fig. 2. All are within an area of c. 17,000 km2 if the distribution is continuous. Most collections are concentrated in a more southerly area of about 1,000 km2, with one more northerly isolated population (Map 1). These areas seem to be lowland incursions either in, or marginal to, the Depressãointermontana de Ceres that surrounds the Central Goiás Highlands (IBGE 2006). This area is poorly collected; it has also been heavily deforested to the west, while altitudes climb to the east. The northern and southern areas are now isolated by the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam artificial lake, which inundated 1,784 km2 at 460 m (Eletrobras – Furnas2010). For these reasons, the species should be considered Vulnerable: VU B1ab, following IUCN (2001), on the basis of a natural distribution below 20,000 km2, severely fragmented habitat and known decline in area of occupancy due to the Serra da Mesa lake.
    Phenology
    Flowering specimens were collected in October and fruiting specimens in December.
    Vernacular
    Jambeiro (Portuguese). This name is also used for Syzygiumjambos (L.) Alston and probably derives from the similarity between the fruits of the species.
    Note
    Eugenia pyrifera fits well into Eugenia sect. Stenocalyx, due to the inflorescences which are precocious racemes that appear together with leaf flush. Flowers are produced in the axils of short shoots with very immature leaves; as these leaves mature, the raceme axis elongates and the terminal bud continues vegetative growth, so that fruits appear to have derived from solitary, axillary flowers (Mazine-Capelo2006). It is most similar to Eugenia megaflora Govaerts, and is compared to it in the diagnosis, but it is vegetatively similar to narrow-leaved forms of E. biflora DC. (which belongs to sect. Racemosae), both of which also occur in Goiás. It is interesting that this species appears to be adapted not only to gallery forests, in which water is more abundant and the air more humid, but also to drier savanna habitats (cerrado and cerradão). This is not common and our studies of Eugenia in Goiás have shown that most species of Eugenia occur exclusively in the gallery forests or savannas. Both E. pyrifera and E. involucrata DC., which belong to the same section, are more tolerant. The specific epithet (pyrifera — pear-bearing) refers to the pear-shaped fruits and was also chosen to celebrate the collector of the type, Glocimar Pereira da Silva (CEN), who, with his many collections from diverse localities of the cerrado, has greatly contributed to the knowledge of its flora; pereira means ‘pear-bearing tree’ in Portuguese. He was particularly active in the floristic inventories required before the building of the Serra da Mesa Hydroelectric Dam.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Brazil West-Central

    Eugenia pyrifera Faria & Proença appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2012 Verboonen, S.M. [187], Brazil K001021471
    FAria, J.E.Q. [3870], Brazil K001051695
    FAria, J.E.Q. [897], Brazil K001051696

    First published in Kew Bull. 67: 245 (2012)

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Eletrobras – Furnas (2010). Eletrobras – Furnas. http://www.furnas.com.br; accessed March 2010.
    • Govaerts, R., Sobral, M., Ashton, P., Barrie, F., Holst, B. K., Landrum, L. R., Matsumoto, K., Mazine, F. F., NicLughadha, E. M., Proença, C., Soares-Silva, L. H., Wilson, P. G. & Lucas, E. (2008). World Checklist of Myrtaceae. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.Google Scholar
    • Lucas, E. J., Harris, S. A., Mazine, F. F., Belsham, S. R., NicLughadha, E. M., Telford, A. & Chase, M. W. (2007). A suprageneric phylogeny of tribe Myrteae (Myrtaceae) with biogeographical analysis and morphological discussion. Taxon 55: 1105 – 1128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
    • IBGE (2006). Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. ftp://geoftp.ibge.gov.br/mapas/tematicos/mapas_murais/relevo_2006.pdf; accessed April 2010.
    • Mazine-Capelo, F. F. (2006). Estudostaxonômicosem Eugenia L. (Myrtaceae), com ênfaseem Eugenia Sect. Racemosae O. Berg. Unpubl. Ph.D. Thesis.Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo.Google Scholar
    • IUCN (2001). IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.Google Scholar
    • Landrum, L. R. & Kawasaki, M. L. (1997). The genera of Myrtaceae in Brazil: an illustrated synoptic treatment and identification keys. Brittonia 49: 508 – 536.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0