1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Callicarpa L.
      1. Callicarpa anisodonta Bramley

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sulawesi.

    [KBu]

    Bramley, G.L.C. 2012. Kew Bulletin 67: 213. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-012-9359-3

    Habit
    Shrub c. 3 m
    Twigs
    Twigs with a layer of branched hairs covering the surface, interspersed with longer patent hairs that are branched at the base only
    Leaves
    Leaves narrowly elliptic, 9 – 21 × 3.5 – 8.3 cm, margins dentate, apex acuminate, base cuneate to obtuse, upper surface with erect simple hairs with thickened bases, these dense along the impressed midvein, also with scattered peltate scales, lower surface with branched and stellate hairs, sometimes the central hair longer than the lateral branches, yellow sessile glands on the leaf surface, the venation with longer hairs that are branched at the base only; petioles 0.5 – 1.5 cm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, peduncles c. 0.5 mm, cymes few flowered but congested
    Pedicel
    Pedicels to c. 0.5 mm long
    Bracts
    Bracteoles linear, 4 – 6 mm long Bracts linear c. 8 mm long, indumentum as stems, with scattered peltate scales
    Calyx
    Calyx cupular, 4 – 4.5 mm long, divided into 5 linear lobes, three lobes c. 2 mm long, completely divided, two lobes c. 2 mm long but fused for about half of their length, outer surface densely covered with longer hairs that are branched at the base only, surface obscured, lobes with some hair on inner side but inner surface of tube ± glabrous
    Corolla
    Corolla c. 5 mm long, divided into (4) 5 lobes c. 0.5 mm long, outer surface with adpressed branched hairs on the tube, also with yellow sessile glands, inner surface ± glabrous
    Stamens
    Stamens (4) 5, filaments exserted c. 1 mm from corolla, anthers oblong c. 2.5 mm long, yellow sessile glands on the connective
    Stigma
    Stigma ± capitate, asymmetric with slightly more tissue on one side
    Fruits
    Fruit red (Coode), c. 3 mm wide (on dry specimen), stellate hairs on the apex, the persistent calyx splitting as the fruit matures; 9 (?10) 1-seeded pyrenes
    Distribution
    Apparently endemic to the Luwuk area, Sulawesi Tengah (central), on the east Peninsula. Maps 1 and 2.
    Ecology
    Riverside forest, very steep slopes; growing from near vertical riverbank: 70 m.
    Conservation
    Because this species is only known from one locality at present, a preliminary conservation status of Data Deficient seems appropriate. A paper by Cannon et al. (2007) published conservation priorities for Sulawesi based on forest type, condition and threats. They produced maps of current forest cover, and a map showing the top twenty ranking protected areas. The collecting locality of Callicarpa anisodonta is close to the SuakaMargasatwaLombuyan I-II protected area in the Balingara and Lombuyan mountains; maps show the area has fair to good forest condition. Satellite views of the area around the locality using Google Earth (http://www.google.com/earth/index.html, accessed 2010) also show continuous forest cover. On the basis of this evidence, I think it likely that further exploration in this area would result in more collections of this species, and a conservation assessment of Least Concern.
    Note

    An anomaly is the four-merous corolla (see Fig. 1) found in the same inflorescence as five-merous corollas: this occurs in other species such as Callicarpa pentandra (Bramley 2009; Bramley in press). A cross section of the scant fruit material present on Coode 5987 revealed five evenly spaced pyrenes on one side, but four rather unequal pyrenes on the other, along with a thinner fruit wall (Fig. 1). The fruit itself was slightly asymmetric the side with only four pyrenes; I assume that one of the ovules did not develop on this side. In Callicarpa there are two types of fruit: on the basis of this I have informally divided the genus into two groups, typical Callicarpa, and the ‘Geunsia group’ (I now consider Geunsia Blume to be a synonym of Callicarpa; see Bramley 2009, for more details regarding these groups and the history of confusion concerning the perceived relationship between Geunsia and Callicarpa). The typical Callicarpa group has four-merous flowers, four ovules and four pyrenes; the Geunsia group has 4 – 6 (7)-merous flowers, but 8 – 12 (14) pyrenes. Geunsia group species also tend to have oblong anthers that are larger relative to the corolla than the elliptic anthers of the typical Callicarpa group. On the basis of these characters, Callicarpa anisodonta falls under the Geunsia group, and as such I would predict the four-merous flowers to produce fruit with eight pyrenes, and the five-merous flowers to produce fruit with ten pyrenes. Whether the fruit seen to date is typical for this species remains to be seen; at present no further material has been located.

    The epithet anisodonta refers to the unequal calyx lobes of this species.

    The specimen on which Callicarpa anisodonta is based was first identified as C. havilandii (King & Gamble) H. J. Lam, a species native to Borneo. On close inspection a number of characters by which it differs from that species became apparent. The most distinct is the calyx morphology: in Callicarpa the typical calyx is actinomorphic with 4 – 5 (6, 7) lobes that are equal in size, but in C. anisodonta, two of the five calyx lobes are different to the other three, being fused for about half their length. I have not come across this character in the genus before. Further distinguishing features of C. anisodonta are calyx lobes that are linear (C. havilandii and other similar Bornean species such as C. argentii Bramley have much smaller triangular calyx lobes), a hairy corolla (the corolla of C. havilandii is hairy on the lobes only) and an inflorescence that has shorter axes and fewer flowers than that of C. havilandii. Although this species is based only on one collection, the distinctive nature of the calyx means that I am confident in describing it as new.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Sulawesi

    Callicarpa anisodonta Bramley appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Kew Bull. 67: 214 (2012)

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
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    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0