1. Family: Asphodelaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Kumara Medik.
      1. Kumara plicatilis (L.) G.D.Rowley

        Aloe plicatilis was first given a Latin name (Aloe africana arborescens montana non spinosa folio longissimo, plicatili, flore rubro) in 1695 by Heinrich Bernhard Oldenland (1663-1722), the master gardener at the Dutch East India Company garden in Cape Town. In 1753, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus renamed it Aloe disticha var. plicatilis, and this was in turn replaced with its present name by Philip Miller, Curator of the Chelsea Physic Garden, in 1768. This striking plant has a long history of cultivation in Britain. Miller had been growing it at the Chelsea Physic Garden since 1731 and it was illustrated in Curtis's Botanical Magazine in 1799. It is normally grown as a conservatory plant in Britain, but is widely cultivated as a garden plant in Mediterranean areas. The clusters of leaves resemble an open fan, giving rise to the fan aloe’s common name.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description
    Fan aloe is an unusual, many-branched succulent with striking scarlet flowers and fan-like clusters of leaves.

    Aloe plicatilis was first given a Latin name (Aloe africana arborescens montana non spinosa folio longissimo, plicatili, flore rubro) in 1695 by Heinrich Bernhard Oldenland (1663-1722), the master gardener at the Dutch East India Company garden in Cape Town. In 1753, the Swedish botanist Carl Linnaeus renamed it Aloe disticha var. plicatilis, and this was in turn replaced with its present name by Philip Miller, Curator of the Chelsea Physic Garden, in 1768. This striking plant has a long history of cultivation in Britain. Miller had been growing it at the Chelsea Physic Garden since 1731 and it was illustrated in Curtis's Botanical Magazine in 1799. It is normally grown as a conservatory plant in Britain, but is widely cultivated as a garden plant in Mediterranean areas. The clusters of leaves resemble an open fan, giving rise to the fan aloe’s common name.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Native to South Africa, where it occurs in southern Western Cape Province, from Franschhoek to Elandskloof, growing on rocky mountain slopes alongside proteas and cape heaths.

    Description

    A shrub or small tree, this succulent grows to 5 m high and wide, with a branched stem bearing fans of stiff, rather flat, spineless, strap-shaped leaves up to 30 cm long. The spikes of tubular, red flowers are borne at the end of upright peduncles (flower stalks) from spring to early summer in South Africa, and from late winter to early spring in Britain. The flowers are pollinated by sunbirds in its native habitat.

    Threats and conservation

    Fan aloe is not considered to be threatened, but has a rather limited distribution in the wild. It is listed in the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix II, meaning that international trade in this species is controlled, and export permits may be required.

    Uses

    Fan aloe is cultivated as an ornamental. The gel has wound-healing properties, and in some areas in South Africa it is used in a drink to stimulate the immune system. The gel is also reported to be used to treat diabetes. Scientific analysis of the gel has resulted in the isolation of glucomannan, a polysaccharide which may have a role in its wound-healing effects.

    Kew’s Africulture Centre project

    Kew’s Africulture Centre project aims to promote sustainable management of botanical resources for food, medicine, craft and other economically beneficial activities in an area near Grahamstown, South Africa. It is estimated that about 80% of the black Africans living in this community rely solely on traditional medicines. Because of the increased incidence of disease and the fact that the population of Grahamstown has more than doubled in the last 15 years, the demand for traditional medicines has increased and there is no sustainable supply of species traditionally used as medicine and for food.

    In this Darwin Initative-funded project, Kew is working with Garden Africa and Umthathi, an NGO in Grahamstown, to develop a nursery garden which is propagating some of the key endangered species. Umthathi has established a local network of traditional healers to identify the species they would like to have propagated on the 10 hectare plot that was secured for the creation of the Centre. Kew works with Garden Africa and other partners in South Africa to support the propagation of selected species and to develop good quality plant-based products that can be made by these communities to mitigate the effects of opportunistic infections such as tuberculosis, psoriasis and oral thrush.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: Average 1,000 seed weight = 5.34 g

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: Two

    Germination testing: 100% germination was achieved on a 1% agar medium, at a temperature of 15°C, and a cycle of 8 hours daylight/16 hours darkness.

    Cultivation

    In Britain, Aloe plicatilis requires protection from frost, andis best grown in good, well-drained soil under glass or, when young, in a container outside. Propagation is by seed or branch cuttings taken in spring.

    This species at Kew

    Fan aloe can be seen growing in the Princess of Wales Conservatory at Kew.

    Preserved specimens of fan aloe are held in Kew’s Herbarium, where they are available to researchers by appointment. The details of an alcohol-preserved specimen can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue

    Distribution
    South Africa
    Ecology
    Dry rocky slopes; amongst fynbos vegetation (shrubland or heathland vegetation in coastal and mountainous areas with winter rainfall and a Mediterranean climate).
    Conservation
    Not considered threatened. Listed in CITES Appendix II.
    Hazards

    Leaves harmful if eaten by humans or animals.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Ornamental, medicinal uses in South Africa.

    Images

    Distribution

    Found In:

    Cape Provinces

    Common Names

    English
    Fan aloe

    Kumara plicatilis (L.) G.D.Rowley appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Alsterworthia Int., Special Issue 10: 3 (2013)

    Literature

    • [1] World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2011). Aloe plicatilis. Published on the Internet by the Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • [2] Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. (2008) Seed Information Database (SID). Version 7.1.
    • [3] Reynolds, T. (ed.) (2004). Aloes: The genus Aloe. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants – Industrial Profiles. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
    • [4] Court, D. (2000). Succulent Flora of Southern Africa, Revised Edition. A.A. Balkema, Cape Town.
    • [5] Phillips, R. & Rix, M. (1998). Conservatory and Indoor Plants, Volume 2. Pan Books Ltd, London.
    • [6] Van Wyk, B.-E. & Smith, G.F. (1996). Guide to the Aloes of South Africa. Briza Publications, Pretoria.
    • [7] Curtis, W. (1799). Aloe plicatilis. Curtis’s Bot. Mag. 13: t. 457.

    Sources

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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