1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Phalaenopsis Blume
      1. Phalaenopsis cacharensis (Barbhuiya, B.K.Dutta & Schuit.) Kocyan & Schuit.

        Ornithochilus cacharensis is a small orchid with bright red-purple flowers opening from June to October. Its growth habit is monopodial (it continues to grow each year from the same growing point). Only one plant has been recorded, and it is considered to be Critically Endangered.

    [KSP]
    General Description
    Ornithochilus cacharensis is a Critically Endangered orchid, which was recently discovered in Cachar, Assam (India).

    Ornithochilus cacharensis is a small orchid with bright red-purple flowers opening from June to October. Its growth habit is monopodial (it continues to grow each year from the same growing point). Only one plant has been recorded, and it is considered to be Critically Endangered.

    Ornithochilus is closely related to the well-known genus Phalaenopsis (moth orchids) and will in the future be combined with the latter.

    Species Profile

    Geography and distribution

    Ornithochilus cacharensis has only been recorded in Cachar district, Assam, India.

    The single recorded individual was found growing as an epiphyte on the trunk of a Duabanga grandiflora in wet evergreen lowland forest at about 130 m above sea level. It was growing in association with Piper species.

    Description

    Overview: Monopodial (growing from the same point each year) epiphyte (growing on another plant for support). Roots circular in cross-section, 2.5–3.0 mm in diameter.

    Stems: Unbranched, 2.0–3.5 cm long.

    Leaves: Mid-green, twisted at the base, elliptic-oblong, 19.0–21.0 × 3.0–4.3 cm, with a sheathing base, 1.0–1.2 cm long.

    Flowers: Red-purple, the lip darker than sepals and petals, about 1.7 cm in diameter. Borne in inflorescences 35–38 cm long, with 1–4 branches, containing about 30–70 flowers. Lip four-lobed, with a curved spur about 4.2 mm long situated in the middle of the lip. Column red-purple, hairless, 6.2–6.5 mm long, with the ventral side whitish. Pollinia (distinct masses of pollen grains) yellow and four in number (in two pairs).

    Fruits: Unknown.

    Kew scientist works with partners to publish new orchid species

    During recent fieldwork in the eastern part of the Borail Wildlife Sanctuary, in the Cachar district of Assam, H. A. Barbhuiya (Botanical Survey of India) discovered a single, mature individual of a small, monopodial orchid with bright red-purple flowers. It was described as a new species,  Ornithochilus cacharensis, in a 2012 issue of  Kew Bulletin, in collaboration with partners including Kew scientist André Schuiteman.

    Its specific epithet  cacharensis was given in honour of the district (Cachar) where it was found.

    How this species differs from others in the genus

    The column of Ornithochilus cacharensis differs from that of O. difformis in being twice as long and hairless.

    The margins of the lip epichile (terminal divisions of the lip) are sharply toothed, in contrast to the small, rounded teeth of O. yingjiangensis.

    Ornithochilus cacharensis differs from both of these species in its uniformly red-purple flowers and the relatively longer lateral lobes of the lip hypochile (basal part of the lip).

    Threats and conservation

    Ornithochilus cacharensis has been assessed as Critically Endangered according to IUCN criteria. Only a single plant has been recorded, and its habitat is threatened by slash-and-burn cultivation and tree-felling.

    This species at Kew

    Dried and alcohol-preserved specimens of the related species Ornithochilus difformis are held in Kew’s Herbarium. The details of some of these can be seen in Kew’s Herbarium Catalogue.

    Distribution
    India
    Ecology
    Epiphytic (on the trunk of Duabanga grandiflora) in wet evergreen lowland forest.
    Conservation
    Critically Endangered (CR) according to IUCN Red List criteria. Only one plant has been recorded.
    Hazards

    None known.

    Images

    Distribution

    Phalaenopsis cacharensis (Barbhuiya, B.K.Dutta & Schuit.) Kocyan & Schuit. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Phytotaxa 161: 67 (2014)

    Literature

    • [1] Barbhuiya, H. A., Deori, C., Dutta B. K., Das, A. Kr., Baishya, A. K. & Schuiteman, A. (2012). Ornithochilus cacharensis (Orchidaceae), a new species from India (Assam). Kew Bulletin 67: 511–516.

    Sources

    International Plant Names Index
    The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
    [A] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    [B] http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [C]

    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
    World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    [D] See http://kew.org/about-kew/website-information/legal-notices/index.htm You may use data on these Terms and Conditions and on further condition that: The data is not used for commercial purposes; You may copy and retain data solely for scholarly, educational or research purposes; You may not publish our data, except for small extracts provided for illustrative purposes and duly acknowledged; You acknowledge the source of the data by the words "With the permission of the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew" in a position which is reasonably prominent in view of your use of the data; Any other use of data or any other content from this website may only be made with our prior written agreement. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
    [E] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0