1. Family: Arecaceae Bercht. & J.Presl
    1. Genus: Calamus L.
      1. Calamus concolor (Blume) W.J.Baker

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Sumatera, Borneo.

    [PW]
    Distribution
    In lowland and hill mixed-Dipterocarp forests on hillslopes and valley bottoms, rarely on sandstone ridges, widespread in Borneo, very local in Sumatra; apparently frequently overlooked and rarely collected.
    General Description
    Slender clustering rattan up to 15 m tall, rarely more. Stems closely clustering by short suckers, to 5 mm diam. without sheaths, to 12 mm diam. with sheaths, internodes 12-25 cm long. Leaf sheaths pinky-grey-green when fresh and young, dull green when old and fresh, dull greeny-brown or brown when dry, covered in caducous scurfy grey indumentum and scattered chest- nut pseudoparenchymatous scales, and dark brown, easily-detached spiculate spines to 1 mm long, borne on pale yellowish-green bulbous bases, at least some of the spiculae grouped in horizontal partial whorls of four or more spiculae, the bulbous bases persistent long after the fall of the spiculae, in extreme instances the bulbous bases forming collar-like rings on the leaf sheaths; geniculus prominent, armed as is the sheath; ocrea very short to moderately conspicuous, to 5 mm long. Petiole very short (1 cm) to moderate (15 cm) (the type has almost no petiole) armed with scattered pale spines to 4 mm long, spiculae, pale indumentum, and dark brown scales, or sometimes scarcely armed at all; whole leaf to 1.25 m long including the cirrus to 40 cm long; rachis armed with grouped reflexed thorns up to 8 cm long, c. 6 cm distant, the distance decreasing above, the spine groups intergrading with the grapnel hooks on the cirrus above, these c. 1.5 cm distant, decreasing towards the tip. Leaflets in mature individuals 3-7 on each side of the rachis, usually 6, the lowermost pair usually somewhat smaller than the rest, occasionally very much smaller, 2-16 x 1-5 cm, the mid leaflets 15-21 x 6-8 cm, moderately plicate, dull green above, slightly paler below, without dense white indumentum, rhomboid, with a moderately well-defined apical portion 2-4 x 0.5 cm at the base, the leaflets alternate below, ± opposite above; lower margins unarmed, upper praemorse margins with scattered prickles; 15-25 main veins radiating from the base; transverse veinlets moderately prominent above and below. Emerging leaf pink. Inflorescences staminate and pistillate on separate plants, superficially similar, varying from erect with a very short peduncle, sometimes almost sessile, to pendulous on a peduncle to 20 cm long and 2-5 mm wide, rarely armed with very short (0.5 mm long) prickles; in forms with ? sessile inflorescences, inflorescence adnate to 8 cm above leaf sheath mouth on the next leaf sheath; in forms with pedunculate inflorescences, inflorescence scarcely adnate beyond leaf sheath mouth. Prophyll rather variable in size, 19-35 cm x 2.5-5 cm, wide (average about 26 x 4 cm) including the beak up to 3.5 x 0.3 cm flat with inrolled margins near the base, occasionally with scattered buff to chocolate- brown caducous indumentum on both adaxial and abaxial surfaces, pinkish-green when first emerging, later pale green and finally cinnamon-brown at anthesis. Axis branching to 2 orders with up to 8 first-order branches; first- order bracts tightly sheathing to 5 mm long. Staminate flower solitary, borne on an alveolus ± 1 mm diam., greeny-cream at anthesis; whole flower rather variable in size, 4.0-5.5 x 2-2.5 mm; calyx tubular, shallowly 3- lobed, c. 0.6 mm long, lobes bluntly triangular; corolla very shortly tubular, split for almost entire length into 3 petals, to 5.5 x 2.5 mm, gradually narrowed above to triangular tips; stamens 6, shortly epipetalous (c. 1.5 mm above base); filaments fleshy, triangular, laterally connate; anthers to 2.5 x 0.5 mm; pollen yellow; pistillode minute. Pistillate flower borne on an alveolus c. 1.5 mm diam. together with a sterile staminate flower, to 4.5 x 3 mm; calyx shallowly 3-lobed, up to 1 mm long; corolla tubular below, split to about I its length into 3 lobes c. 3 mm wide; staminodes borne about 1.5 mm above the bases of corolla-lobes, triangular-based narrowed to an apiculus c. 0.5 mm long; ovary c. 2.75 mm diam., rounded, tipped with the 3 twisted stigmas, each to c. 0.75 mm long. Sterile staminate flower superficially rather similar to the pistillate, to 3.5 x 2.5 mm; calyx to 1 mm long with 3 short lobes; corolla split almost to the base. Sterile flowers with filaments c. 0.75 mm long, borne about 0.75 mm above the base of the petals; empty anthers c. 15 x 0.2 mm; pistillode minute. Ripe fruit spherical or slightly ovoid, in the type c. 2 x 2 cm, in most material slightly less, up to 1l5 cm, tipped with the stigmatic remains, covered with 12 vertical rows of reflexed orangey-chestnut brown scales to 5 x 7 mm. Seed conforming to the pericarp with sarcotesta c. 2 mm thick. Diaspore to 1.4 x 0.9 cm in the type but usually less, somewhat flattened on one side. Endosperm rather deeply penetrated by dark brown ruminations. Embryo basal, c. 2 x 1 mm. Seedling with eophyll with four very slightly praemorse leaflets held in one plane in a fan.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Borneo, Sumatera

    Calamus concolor (Blume) W.J.Baker appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 14, 2005 Watanabe, N.M. [NMW54], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000209405
    May 16, 1995 Van Valkenburg [1067], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520999
    Jun 6, 1994 Tadong [502], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520979
    May 26, 1994 Van Valkenburg [1034], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000521000
    Dec 22, 1993 Van Valkenburg [1132], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520993
    Jul 13, 1990 Wong, K.M. [WKM511], Brunei Ceratolobus concolor K000521007
    Jul 20, 1989 Lee, B. [S45452], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520989
    Feb 1, 1989 Awa [S51047], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520991
    Aug 20, 1987 Kandau [S43757], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520972
    Feb 11, 1987 Sundaling [SAN99457], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520977
    Feb 17, 1986 Dransfield, J. [JD6264], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520982
    Mar 11, 1980 Mogea, J.P. [B1705], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520995
    Nov 4, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5859], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520984
    Oct 2, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5714], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520981
    May 1, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5518], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520996
    Apr 30, 1979 Dransfield, J. [JD5514], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520988
    Oct 7, 1977 Dransfield, J. [JD5294], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000521005
    Sep 4, 1977 Dransfield, J. [JD5589], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520992
    Sep 16, 1976 Dransfield, J. [JD4702], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520987
    Sep 16, 1976 Dransfield, J. [JD2115], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000521001
    Sep 16, 1976 Dransfield, J. [JD2814], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000521002
    Sep 16, 1976 Dransfield, J. [JD4703], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520983
    Sep 16, 1976 Dransfield, J. [JD2074], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520986
    Sep 16, 1976 Dransfield, J. [4160], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000521004
    Sep 16, 1976 Forbes, H.O. [1561], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520967
    Sep 16, 1976 Puasa [3879], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520976
    Sep 16, 1976 Maidin [3684], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520998
    Aug 9, 1975 Dransfield, J. [JD4676], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520990
    Dransfield, J. [JD4404], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520980
    Dransfield, J. [KD4352], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520985
    Dransfield, J. [7149], Brunei Ceratolobus concolor K000521009
    Baker, W.J. [559], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000521011
    Baker, W.J. [539], Brunei Ceratolobus concolor K000521010
    Hoare, A. [256], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000114236
    Christensen [473], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000521003
    Kessler [2124], Indonesia Ceratolobus concolor K000520968
    Dewol [SAN108845], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520974
    Meijer [SAN122420], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520994
    Andersen, J. [209], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000114137
    Andersen, J. [188], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000114131
    Andersen, J. [158], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000114094
    Stockdale, M.C. [33], Brunei Ceratolobus concolor K000520969
    Stockdale, M.C. [MCS22], Brunei Ceratolobus concolor K000520970
    Stockdale, M.C. [40], Brunei Ceratolobus concolor K000520971
    Sambuling [112], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520978
    Sambuling [97], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520973
    Abas [SAN86044], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520975
    Fah [SAN96867], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000520997
    Jinuan, J. [1], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000521008
    Jinuan, J. [29], Malaysia Ceratolobus concolor K000521006

    First published in Phytotaxa 197(2): 150 (2015)

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Palmweb - Palms of the World Online
    Palmweb 2011. Palmweb: Palms of the World Online. Published on the internet http://www.palmweb.org. Accessed on 21/04/2013
    Content licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0