1. Family: Lamiaceae Martinov
    1. Genus: Gmelina L.
      1. Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm.

        This tropical forest species has high economic potential because of its rapid growth and wide variety of uses.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol 8, Pt 7. Avicenniaceae, R. Fernandes. Nesogenaceae, M.A. Diniz. Verbenaceae, R. Fernandes. Lamiaceae, R. Fernandes. 2005.

    Type
    Type a cultivated plant in Calcutta Botanical Garden.
    General
    An unarmed deciduous tree up to 20 m tall; trunk straight, bole clear to 10 m
    Branches
    Branchlets tawny pubescent soon glabrous and smooth greyish to brownish with conspicuous circular lenticels, striate
    Leaves
    Leaves ± discolorous, 10–25 × 7.5–18 cm, broadly-ovate or ovate-cordate, acuminate or caudate at the apex, subcordate to rounded or truncate at the base with 2 glands, entire, toothed or lobed on turions or young plants, sparsely to densely lepidote and glaucous-green and glabrous to velvety stellate-pubescent or -tomentose beneath; with 4–5 lateral nerves on each side of the midrib, the lowest pair basal; petiole 5–15 cm long
    Inflorescences
    Panicles many-flowered, 7.5–39 cm long, erect, with short-cymes, the flowers appearing before or with the young leaves; bracts 1–1.5 cm long, linear or linear-lanceolate, caducous
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 5 mm long, campanulate, shortly 5-dentate, fulvous-tomentose, somewhat accrescent in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or brilliant orange to reddish or brownish-yellow or pinkish-brown to salmon or apricot-coloured, 2.5–4 cm long, densely pubescent outside; limb 2-lipped, with the upper lip deeply divided into 2 oblong, obtuse lobes, the lower lip 3-lobed with the median lobe longer and broader than the lateral ones
    Stamens
    Stamens ± exserted, one pair sometimes sterile
    Fruits
    Drupe 1.5–2.5 cm long, ovoid on obovoid-pyriform, orange-yellow at maturity
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–2 (by abortion).
    Distribution
    Mozambique Malawi Zimbabwe Zambia District code: ZIM C, ZIM C, MAL N, MOZ T, MOZ MS. Native to Pakistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China, Malaysia, Polynesia and S China.  Introduced in tropical South America and elsewhere.  In Africa it is cultivated as a garden ornamental and as a street tree.  In Malawi it has been planted
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 30 - 200 m.; Orinoquia, Pacífico, Valle del Magdalena.
    Habit
    Árbol
    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    This tropical forest species has high economic potential because of its rapid growth and wide variety of uses. Gamhar is a southeast Asian tree that produces high-quality wood, which is used to make furniture and musical instruments, such as Indian sitars and drums.

    The genus Gmelina was named by Carl Linnaeus in honour of Johann Georg Gmelin (1709-1755), who was Professor of Medicine, Botany and Chemistry in Tübingen, Germany, and an explorer in Siberia in the service of the Tsar of Russia.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    Gmelina arborea is native to Pakistan, Bhutan, India, Myanmar, Thailand, Indo-China and South China. It is found in tropical forest to 1,100 metres above sea level. Gamhar has also been introduced to most tropical countries as a timber tree.

    Description

    Gamhar is a tree that can grow to 30 m high, with smooth, whitish to greyish reddish-brown bark and a straight trunk. Its leaves are 8 to 20 cm long, 4.5 to 15 cm wide, and covered with star-shaped hairs. Two large glands are paired at the base of each leaf. The outer surface of the calyx (sepals) is scattered with flat, round glands. The flowers are reddish-yellow, hairy and five-lobed. The hairless fruits are 10 to 15 mm in diameter and glossy yellow when mature. They are recorded as having a bittersweet taste.

    Threats and conservation

    Gmelina arborea is not considered to be threatened, and can be found growing in the wild in many countries, as well as in large numbers in plantations.

    Uses

    Gamhar produces high-quality wood, which is harvested for the manufacture of furniture and musical instruments. It is also used as structural timber, for instance in mines and ship building, as well as joinery, and to make plywood, matches, agricultural implements and even artificial limbs. The wood also produces good quality pulp used in the manufacture of cardboard and various grades of paper.

    Gmelina arborea has a wide range of local medicinal uses. The juice of young leaves has been used to treat gonorrhoea and as a cough medicine. The leaf juice has also been used externally to treat ulcers. A paste of the leaves has been applied to treat headaches associated with fever. The root has been used to treat epilepsy, fever and indigestion. The bittersweet fruit has been included in cooling decoctions given for fevers. 

    Gmelina arborea is a useful multipurpose shade tree for coffee and cocoa plantations; it suppresses grasses and provides livestock fodder. The leaves are also used for silkworm culture. Gamhar is also cultivated as a garden ornamental and as a street tree. In Malawi it has been grown in plantations, to be harvested as fuelwood, mostly for use in tobacco barns. Nectar from the flowers yields high-quality honey.

    Gmelina arborea has been used in revegetation programs, as it grows quickly and provides shade for forest species to germinate under. When the forest species are established, the wood of Gmelina arborea can then be harvested.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Description of seeds: The fruit is a one- to four-seeded drupe. Seeds are dispersed by animals. Average 1000 seed weight = 923 g.

    Number of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank: One.

    Seed storage behaviour: Orthodox (the seeds of this plant survive being dried without significantly reducing their viability, and are therefore amenable to long-term frozen storage such as at the MSB).

    Cultivation

    Gamhar thrives in full sunlight, although it can tolerate some shade. It is moderately frost-hardy, and can recover quickly from frost injuries. It grows best in fertile, well-drained soils, and is normally propagated by seed. For rapid germination, fresh seed should be soaked in cold water for 48 hours. The seed should then be sown in a mixture of sand and loam at 22 - 25˚C, and will germinate within two to three weeks. An alternative method of propagation involves taking cuttings from the tips of two- to three-week-old plants. The cuttings should be 12 cm long and include the terminal bud and four to six leaves, each reduced to one third of its surface area. Cuttings should be misted and kept at 22 - 25˚C. It is also possible to propagate this species by layering or grafting.

    Gamhar at Kew

    There are 33 specimens of Gmelina arborea in the Economic Botany Collection and these include samples of wood, fruits, roots and artefacts such as a wooden bowl.

    The Herbarium (one of the behind-the-scenes areas of Kew) contains many dried specimens of Gmelina arborea .

    Distribution
    Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Thailand
    Ecology
    Tropical semi-evergreen, moist and dry deciduous forest.
    Conservation
    Rated by the IUCN as of Least Concern (LC).
    Hazards

    None known.

    [KSP]
    Use
    Building material, local medicine.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China South-Central, East Himalaya, India, Laos, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Belize, Benin, Borneo, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Gambia, Guatemala, Malaya, Mexico Southeast, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Peru, Philippines, Sudan, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela

    Common Names

    English
    Gamhar

    Gmelina arborea Roxb. ex Sm. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 Harvey [9930], Malaysia K000755775
    Jan 1, 2010 Chai, P. [29349], Malaysia K000755773
    Jan 1, 2010 Loh, H.S. [21564], Malaysia K000755730
    Jan 1, 2010 Puasa [9937], Malaysia K000755781
    Jan 1, 2010 Gaerlan, F. [2606], Philippines K000755946
    Jan 1, 2010 Garrick, J. [1511], Malaysia K000755729
    Jan 1, 2010 Putz, F. [021976], Malaysia K000755728
    Jan 1, 2010 Kadir [A50], Malaysia K000755776
    Jan 1, 2010 Kadir [A971], Malaysia K000755780
    Jan 1, 2010 Ambri [W98], Indonesia K000755774
    Jan 1, 2010 Kok, R. de [147214], Malaysia K000755777
    Jan 1, 2010 Sylva, E.R. de [10806], Malaysia K000755731
    Jan 1, 2010 Pelayak, J. [100594], Malaysia K000755778
    Jan 1, 2010 Julin [100596], Malaysia K000755779
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114276
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114278
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114279
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114280
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114281
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114282
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114283
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1817] K001114284
    Noton, E. [Cat. no. 1817], India K001114277

    First published in A.Rees, Cycl. 16: n.º 4 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • de Kok, R. (2012). A revision of the genus Gmelina (Lamiaceae) Kew Bulletin 67: 293-329.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fernandes, R. & Diniz, M.A. (2005). Avicenniaceae, Nesogenaceae, Verbenaceae and Lamiaceae (subfams, Viticoideae and Ajugoideae) Flora Zambesiaca 8(7): 1-161. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Literature

    Kew Species Profiles
    • Economic potential of the rainforests (Kew factsheet).
    • Tewari, D.N. (1995). A monograph on GAMARI ( Gmelina arborea Roxb.). Dehra Dun: International Book Distributors. 125p.

    • Soerianegara, I. & Lemmens, R.H.M.J. (1993). Plant Resources of South-East Asia 5(1): Timber trees: Major commercial timbers. Pudoc, Wageningen.
    • Lamb, A.F.A. (Comp.) (1978). Fast-growing timber trees of the lowland tropics: No.1. Gmelina arborea. University of Oxford, Commonwealth Forestry Institute.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.E.A., Verbenaceae: 2 (1992).
    • Rev. Fl. Ceylon 4 : 390 (1983).
    • Biegel, Check-list Ornam. Pl. Rhod. Parks & Gard. [Rhodesia Agric. J., Research Report No. 3]: 58 (1977).
    • J.H. Ross, Fl. Natal: 300 (1972).
    • Bothalia 10 , 3: 496 (1971).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2 : 432 (1963).
    • White, For. Fl. N. Rhod.: 368 (1962).
    • Brenan, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 639 (1949).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (2012). Flora Mesoamericana 4(2): 1-533. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • de Kok, R. (2012). A revision of the genus Gmelina (Lamiaceae) Kew Bulletin 67: 293-329.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Species Profiles
    Kew Species Profiles
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0