1. Family: Brassicaceae Burnett
    1. Genus: Raphanus L.
      1. Species: Raphanus raphanistrum L.
        1. Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin

        Raphanus sativus is a cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding). Because it has been in cultivation for thousands of years, its exact origins are unknown. Radish is grown all over the world for its fleshy, edible taproot. A wide variety of cultivars are available, producing taproots that range from 2 cm up to 1 m long, and from red to pink, white, purple or black in colour.

    [KSP]

    Kew Species Profiles

    General Description

    Raphanus sativus is a cultigen (a plant that has been altered by humans through a process of selective breeding). Because it has been in cultivation for thousands of years, its exact origins are unknown. Radish is grown all over the world for its fleshy, edible taproot. A wide variety of cultivars are available, producing taproots that range from 2 cm up to 1 m long, and from red to pink, white, purple or black in colour.

    Radish is a cruciferous plant in Brassicaceae, a family that includes turnip (Brassica rapa), cabbage and relatives (Brassica oleracea) and horseradish (Armoracia rusticana).

    The generic name Raphanus derives from the Greek ra, meaning quickly, and phainomai, meaning to appear, in reference to the rapid germination of radish seeds. The common name radish derives from the Latin for root, radix.

    Species Profile
    Geography and distribution

    It is thought that Raphanus sativus evolved in the eastern Mediterranean region and may have been selected from R. raphanistrum subspecies landra (sometimes known by the synonym R. landra ).

    Radish was an important food crop in Egypt by 2,000 BC, spread to China by about 500 BC and reached Japan around 700 AD. Radish did not reach Britain until the mid-16th century.

    Radish is now widely distributed, and cultivars are available to suit a wide range of environmental conditions.

    Description

    Overview: An annual or biennial herb with succulent taproot.

    Taproot: Widely variable in colour, shape and size. Red, pink, white, yellow, purple or black externally, white to bright pink internally. Spherical, olive-, spindle- or turnip-shaped, tapering from top or bottom, 2 cm to 1m long and 60 cm in diameter.

    Leaves: Lobed, with a larger, rounded, terminal lobe and smaller, paired lower segments. Irregularly toothed.

    Flowers: Four white to pink or pale violet petals. Four sepals. Flowers borne on erect, many-flowered inflorescences up to 90 cm tall.

    Fruit: A smooth, beaked, fleshy siliqua (fruit divided into two parts by a thin partition and opening by two valves to reveal seeds on central limb).

    Many cultivars are available, including:• ‘Caudatus’ – rat’s tail• ‘Longipinnatus’ – daikon, mooli, mula, muli, Chinese root, Japanese root, rettich

    Cultivars commonly grown in the UK include: ‘Black Spanish Round’, ‘Cherry Belle’, ‘China Rose’, ‘French Breakfast’, 'München Bier', and many others.

    Uses

    Radish is cultivated as an annual for its enlarged, succulent taproot, which has been used for food since prehistoric times. The taproot is eaten raw in salads, relishes and appetizers, and slices are included in stir-fries. Black radishes are favoured in many Eastern European cuisines.

    Young radish leaves are edible and are cooked in the same manner as spinach. Sprouted radish seedlings (jaba) are also consumed. Young radish fruits have a spicy flavour and are sometimes pickled. Radish was grown for its seed oil in Ancient Egypt.

    Oriental radish ( Raphanus sativus ‘Longipinnatus’), known as daikon or mooli, can produce a long-lasting taproot over 45 cm long and weighing up to 50 kg. This mild-flavoured taproot is widely used in oriental cuisines, for example in soups, sauces and meat dishes. In Japan it is grated to produce a garnish for sashimi. Pickled daikon is popular in Japan and Korea. Daikon is used to make ‘turnip cake’, which is eaten at Chinese New Year. Daikon is fed to stock in the East.

    Raphanus sativus ‘Caudatus’, known as rat’s tail, is cultivated in Asia for its fruits which grow up to 30 cm long. The young fruits are consumed raw, cooked or pickled.

    Some radish cultivars are grown for their leaves, which are used as fodder.

    Night of the radishes

    On 23 December in Oaxaca (Mexico) thousands of people gather to celebrate Noche de rábanos (Night of the radishes).

    The focus of this festival, celebrated since 1897, is the creation of intricate sculptures carved from giant radishes, many depicting nativity scenes or saints.

    Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

    The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

    Three collections of Raphanus sativus seeds are held in Kew’s Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

    This species at Kew

    Raphanus sativus can usually be seen growing in the Plant Family Beds at Kew.

    Pressed and dried specimens of Raphanus sativus are held in Kew’s Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details of specimens of Raphanus species can be seen online in Kew’s Herbarium Catalogue.

    Specimens of radish roots, seeds, seed oil and fruits are held in Kew’s Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

    Ecology
    Unknown.
    Conservation
    Widespread in cultivation.
    Hazards

    None known.

    [FZ]

    Cruciferae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:1. 1960

    Habit
    Annual or biennial herb with a tuberous white, pink or red tap-root and erect, bristly stem up to 100 cm. tall.
    Flowers
    Flowers white or purplish.
    Fruits
    Fruit inflated, up to 15 mm. in diam., not or little constricted between the seeds and not breaking transversely into joints, beak long and conical.
    [FTEA]

    Cruciferae, Bengt Jonsell (University of Stockholm). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Diagnostic
    Like R. raphanistrum but usually biennial with thickened napiform to cylindrical taproot and with thicker siliquae (7–15 mm. in diameter) of ± spongy to corky consistency, not lomentaceous and not or only slightly constricted between the 1–12 seeds.

    Images

    Distribution

    Introduced Into:

    Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Baleares, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bermuda, Bolivia, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Corse, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Greece, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Illinois, India, Inner Mongolia, Italy, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Korea, Kriti, Krym, Leeward Is., Libya, Madeira, Manchuria, Mauritania, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Northwest, Morocco, New Caledonia, New Mexico, Nicobar Is., North European Russi, Northern Provinces, Palestine, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Qinghai, Rwanda, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sudan, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tibet, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Windward Is., Xinjiang, Yugoslavia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Radish

    Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 26(2): 255 (1910)

    Accepted in:

    • [1] (2016) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 71: 219-226
    • [2] Ackerfield, J. (2015) Flora of Colorado . BRIT Press
    • [5] Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014) Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide , ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale
    • [21] (2008) Ukrayins'kyi Botanicnyi Zhurnal 65: 811-822

    Synonym in:

    • [26] Flora of China Editorial Committee (2001) Flora of China 8: 1-506. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis) [Cited as Raphanus sativus.]

    Literature

    • [3] Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015) The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan . Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [4] Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014) Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF) . DESIGNPOST
    • [6] (2013) Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475
    • [7] (2013) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden
    • [8] Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013) Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh , Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh
    • [9] (2012) Flora Neomexicana , ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico
    • [10] (2012) Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84
    • [11] (2012) Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192
    • [12] (2011) Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82
    • [13] (2011) Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève
    • [14] (2011) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170
    • [15] Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011) Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín
    • [16] Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011) Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama . Botanical reseach institute of Texas
    • [17] (2008) Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788
    • [18] (2008) Gayana. Botánica 65: 153-197
    • [19] (2008) Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500
    • [20] (2008) Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
    • [22] Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd Edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
    • [23] Davidson, A. (2006). The Oxford Companion to Food, 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press Inc., New York.
    • [24] (2004) Nouvelle flore de la Belgique du G. D. de Luxembourg, du Nord de la France et des régions voisines , ed. 5: 1-1167. Edition du Patrimoine du Jardin botanique national de Belgique
    • [25] (2003) Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria
    • [27] (2000) Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps
    • [28] Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (1999). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
    • [29] (1997) Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 21: 1-121. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris
    • [30] Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1997). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening, Volume 2 (D–K). The Stockton Press, New York.
    • [31] (1996) Atlas Florae Europaeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe 11: 1-310
    • [32] (1996) Memoirs of the California Academy of Sciences 19: 1-190
    • [33] (1987) Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55
    • [34] Al-Shebaz, I. A. (1985). The genera of Brassiceae in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 66: 279–351.
    • [35] (1982) Flora of Tropical East Africa , Cruciferae: 1-73
    • [36] Smith, A.C. (1981) Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai
    • [37] Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978) Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale
    • [38] (1960) Flora Zambesiaca 1(1): 1-336. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
    • [39] Britton, N. (1918) Flora of Bermuda . Charles Scribner's Sons, New York

    Sources

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (2017). Published on the internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp
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