Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is China (Yunnan) to N. Thailand.


Pruesapan K. 2017. Ilex pubifructa (Aquifoliaceae), a new species from northern Thailand. Kew Bulletin 72:21. DOI 10.1007/S12225-017-9692-7

Type: Thailand, Chiang Mai, Doi Pui, 16 June 1968, Beusekom & Phengkhlai 1295 (holotype K!; isotype L!).
Morphology General Habit
Tree 5 - 14 m tall, c. 26 cm DBH.
Morphology General Bark
Bark thin, roughly cracked, light brown or grey.
Morphology Twigs
Twigs pubescent or later glabrescent, lenticels present.
Morphology Branches
Young branches blackish green, turning black when dried.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate, coriaceous, glabrous, dark green above, light green below, slightly punctate below; blade obovate, broadly elliptic, oblong-elliptic, (4 -)5 - 13 x (2 -)3 - 6 cm, base cuneate, margin crenate to obscure denticulate with very obscure teeth, apex obtuse to slightly rounded to rounded acute; midrib pubescent later puberulent to glabrous, sunken above, prominent below; lateral veins in 8 - 13 pairs, subopposite to alternate, irregularly spaced, ± parallel, ascending and looping before leaf margin, obscure above, subprominent below; intercostal venation broadly reticu­late, obscure on both sides; petiole 5 - 20 mm long, pubescent, puberulent, glabrescent or later glabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Male inflorescences pseudofasciculate or pseudoracemose, pubes­cent; bracts and bracteoles subdeltoid, puberulent, ciliate; flowers whitish or yellowish, 4-merous; calyx pubescent to puberulent, lobes suborbicular or truncate, ciliate; corolla ciliate; stamens 4, as long as petals; pistillode discoid-ovoid, apex 4-columnar branches, at bottom of calyx tube; pedicels c. 1.5 mm long, pubescent. Female inflorescences fasciculate or fasciculate-pseudoracemose, pubescent; calyx explanate, 2 - 2.5 mm diam., ciliate; petals 4 - 5mm long, ciliate, staminodes 4, shorter than petals; ovary ovoid to oblong-ovoid, densely pubescent; stigma capitate, glabrous; bracts and bracteoles ovate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits Infructescences
Infructescences fasciculate, rachis very short to 15 mm long; bracts persistent, very small.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit subglobose, 6 - 7x4 - 5 mm, wrinkled when dried, green and smooth when young, pubescent; fruiting pedicel c. 5 mm long, pubescent; persistent calyx explanate, obscure, c. 2 mm diam.; persistent stigma discoid, quadrangular in outline, slightly lobed, centre depressed, c. 2 mm diam.; pyrenes 4, subellipsoid, 5 – 6 x 3- 4 mm, irregular sulcate, pitted.
Endemic to northern Thailand.
Hill evergreen forest, sometimes found in degraded, fire-prone disturbed areas on poor sandy soil or granite bedrock; alt. 700 - 1685 m.
Least Concern (LC) following the IUCN guidelines (IUCN2001). Ilex pubifructa is known from eleven populations over a wide area, approximately 25,000 km2, of four provinces. Some of these populations are in protected areas but some are not and monitoring is necessary to assess whether this species may qualify for a threat category in the future.
Based on data from herbarium speci­mens, Ilex pubifructa flowers in Feb. - March and fruits in May - June.
The epithet means “pubescent fruit”. Ilex pubifructa is similar to I. denticulata in general characters. However, the pubescence on much of the plant makes it immediately distinguishable from the latter. Similar to Ilex denticulata but distinguished by pubescence clearly showing on young twigs, inflorescence parts, ovary and fruit; leaf margins crenate to obscure denticulate with obscure teeth, reticulate veins obscure on both sides.

Native to:

China South-Central, Thailand

Ilex pubifructa Pruesapan, S.Andrews & D.A.Simpson appears in other Kew resources:

First published in Kew Bull. 72(2)-21: 1 (2017)


Kew Bulletin

  • Chen, S. K., Ma, H. Y., Feng, Y. X., Barriera, G. & Loizeau, P. A. (2008). Aquifoliaceae. In: Z. Y. Wu, P. H. Raven & D. Y. Hong (eds), Flora of China, Vol. 11: 359 - 438. Science Press, Beijing & Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Andrews, S. (2002). Aquifoliaceae. In: E. Soepadmo, L. G. Saw & R. C. K. Chung (eds), Tree Flora of Sabah & Sarawak Vol. 4: 1 - 27. Ampang Press Sdn. Bhd., Kuala Lumpur.
  • IUCN (2001). IUCN red list categories and criteria: Version 3.1. IUCN Species Survival Commission. IUCN, Gland and Cambridge.
  • Galle, F. C. (1997). Hollies: the genus Ilex, pp. 79 - 102. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon.
  • Hu, S. Y. (1950). The genus Ilex in China, III. J. Arnold Arbor. 31: 39 - 80.
  • Hu, S. Y. (1949). The genus Ilex in China I - II. J. Arnold Arbor. 30: 233 - 387.
  • Craib, W. G. (1931). Florae Siamensis Enumeratio, Vol. 1: 277 - 278. Siam Society, Bangkok.
  • Turrill, W. B. (1914). LXX. — Decades Kewenses. Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 10: 377 - 381.

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (2020). epublication.

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.

Kew Bulletin
Kew Bulletin

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at and
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.