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  1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Anthoxanthum L.
      1. Anthoxanthum quebrada (Connor & Renvoize) N.I.Villalobos & Finot

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Peru (Ancash).

    [KBu]

    Connor, H.E. & Renvoize, S.A. 2009. Hierochloe quebrada (Poaceae), a new species from Peru and notes on floral biology in South American species. Kew Bulletin 64: 727. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9167-6

    Type
    Peru, Ancash, 37 km E of Yungay, S. A. Renvoize & S. Laegaard 5079 (holotypus K; isotypi AAU, MO 4945250)
    Habit
    A tall, erect, scabrid, coumarin-scented, rhizomatous, monoecious tussock with narrow congested inflorescences of concealed branches of evidently awnedspikelets with protogynous florets, from steep high-altitude ravines of northern Peru
    Rhizomes
    Rhizome thick, often up to 50 cm long, bearing bladeless to shortly bladed cataphylls; branching is extravaginal-Leaf-sheath 10 – 20 cm, ridged, scabrid, keeled below ligule; margin membranous and produced above ligule as 6 – 11 mm lateral lobe
    Ligules
    Ligule 6 – 8 – 11 mm, erose, membranous
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade 20 – 40 cm × 5 – 10 mm, scabrid, tapering to blunt or sharp point, ridges ± equal, finely toothed
    Culms
    Culm erect 60 – 100 cm, scabrid with minute prickle-teeth, nodes 2, brown, glabrous; inflorescence internode 25 – 35 – (50) cm; leaf-sheath and leaf-blade broad
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 10 – 13 – 20 × 1 cm, spiciform, composed of very many densely crowded overlapping spikelets; rachis scabrid; branches concealed, short hairy or toothed; pedicels 1 – 2 mm, usually long hairy
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 3-flowered, linear to linear-ovate; 5 – 7.2 – 8.5 mm including awns which are exserted above the glumes; lemmas included; 2 lower florets (f1, f2) ♂, upper floret (f3) ♀
    Glume
    Glumes 1 – 3-nerved, ovate, membranous, glabrous, scarious, sometimes violet suffused, strongly keeled, subequal, lower glume 4.5 – 5.6 – 6.2 mm, upper glume 5 – 5.8 – 6.5 mm
    Florets
    ♂florets dimorphic, linear, boldly 5-nerved, finely prickle-toothed throughout; margin hairs 0.7 – 1 mm, white, ascending; palea with minutely hairy keels, apex bifid, tip finely ciliate; callus short, hairs 0.8 – 1 mm overarching lemma base; 3 anthers, yellow; 2.4 – 3.3 – 4.1 mm; f1 floret: lemma 4.5 – 5.2 – 6.1 mm, awn 0.2 – 0.9 – 1.5 mm, simple, straight, inserted 0.2 –0.5 – 1.3 mm subapically and equalling acute apical lobe; palea 4.5 – 5 – 5.7 mm, keels sometimes violet; rachilla curved, glabrous, 0.3 mm; f2 floret: lemma 4.2 – 4.9 – 5.9 mm, awn 3 – 4.4 – 6.6 mm, compound, with brown twisted hygroscopic column 0.8 – 2.3 – 3.4 mm, and stramineous arista 1 – 2 – 3.8 mm, reflexed or inflexed, usually inserted at midpoint of lemma, apical lobe 1 mm; palea 3.5 – 4 – 5 mm; rachilla to f3 straight, glabrous 0.3 – 0.5 mm; f3 florets: female; lemma 3-nerved, 3.4 – 4 – 4.5 mm, shining brown glabrous except apex short hairy, keel toothed above, and short hairs on upper margins; apex acute; awn 0 but occasionally 0.3 – 0.6 – 1 mm; palea ≥ lemma 3.8 – 4.2 – 4.8 mm, 1-keeled, minutely toothed; 2 male-sterile anthers, 0.6 – 0.8 – 1.2 mm, often flared, often exserted beyond lemma; gynoecium: ovary 0.8 mm, beak 0.2 – 0.5 – 1 mm, styles free, 0.8 – 1.4 – 2.3 mm, and stigmata 1.5 – 2.9 – 4.5 mm; caryopses 1.3 – 1.5 – 2.2 × 0.4 – 0.6 mm, vein impressed, embryo 0.75 mm Florets golden to brown, linear
    Distribution
    Peru, Ancash, Huascarán National Park and nearby; latitude 77°15 – 31′W, longitude 9°07 – 28′S.
    Ecology
    Growing in grassland on steep north-west to southerly slopes of ravines with large to immense granite boulders and derived soils; 4000 – 4600 m a.s.l.
    Conservation
    Data Deficient (DD).
    Note
    Ecologically Hierochloequebrada is tropicalpine, 9°S, 4000 – 4600 m, occurring on granitic soils on steep slopes among large granitic boulders, and is distinct from H. juncifolia which occurs up to 1750 m in the temperate zone 37°S – 43°S, on volcanic soils in Chile, and on stony or sandy soils in Argentina. The epithet quebrada, here as an indeclinable noun in apposition, is a Spanish substantive for ravine, and refers to the landform where this grass usually occurs. Details of spikelet structure of four species of Hierochloe with spiciform condensed inflorescences are shown in Table 1, showing in particular the contrast between compound awns with twisting columns and inflexed or reflexed aristae in H. juncifolia and H. quebrada, and the simple awns of H. utriculata (Ruiz & Pav.) Kunth and H. altissima. Collar thickened at margin, recurved, brown, glabrous
    Phenology
    Flowering is chasmogamous with protogyny in the f3 floret, and the sequence of anther emergence and dehiscence is predominantly f1 before f2; infrequently it is the reverse or simultaneous. In one spikelet of P. M. Peterson & N. F. Rodriguez 13844 there were two normal gynoecia in an f3: (a) stigma 3 mm, style 1 mm, ovary 1 mm, filamented sterile anther 0.7 mm; (b) stigma 2.5 mm, style 0.8 mm, ovary 1.1 mm, filamented sterile anther 0.6 mm. In one spikelet dissected from D. N. Smith 8247 there was a supernumerary apical floret with an exserted stigma 1.5 mm, style 1.5 mm and ovary 0.8 mm; in the regular f3 below it the stigma was 2.5 mm, style 1.8 mm, and the caryopsis 1.2 mm; male-sterile anthers were present in both.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose; clumped densely. Rhizomes elongated; scaly. Basal innovations extravaginal. Culms erect; 60-100 cm long; 2 -noded. Culm-internodes 25-35(-50) cm long; antrorsely scabrous. Culm-nodes brown; glabrous. Leaf-sheaths 10-20 cm long; mostly shorter than adjacent culm internode; ribbed; antrorsely scabrous. Leaf-sheath auricles erect; 6-11 mm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 6-8 mm long; erose. Collar dark; glabrous. Leaf-blades 20-40 cm long; 5-10 mm wide; aromatic. Leaf-blade surface ribbed; scabrous. Leaf-blade apex acute, or acuminate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle spiciform; linear; continuous; 10-20 cm long; 1 cm wide. Panicle axis scaberulous. Panicle branches puberulous. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1-2 mm long; pubescent.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes elongated between basal sterile florets and elongated below proximal fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation 0.3-0.5 mm long. Floret callus pilose. Floret callus hairs 0.8-1 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 2 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets ovate; laterally compressed; 5-6.5 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Rhachilla internodes elongated between basal sterile florets and elongated below proximal fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation 0.3-0.5 mm long. Floret callus pilose. Floret callus hairs 0.8-1 mm long.
    Glume
    Glumes persistent; similar; reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume ovate; 4.5-6.2 mm long; 0.9 length of upper glume; scarious; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent, or distinct. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume ovate; 5-6.5 mm long; scarious; 1-keeled; 1-3 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent, or distinct. Upper glume apex acute.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets similar; male; with palea; attached to and deciduous with the fertile. Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic; 4.5-6.1 mm long; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 5 -veined; prominently veined; scaberulous; ciliate on margins; bearing white hairs; bearing hairs 0.7-1 mm long; acute; mucronate, or awned. Awn of lower sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.75-0.9 way up back of lemma; straight; 0.2-1.5 mm long. Palea of lower sterile floret 4.5-5.7 mm long; pubescent; adorned on keels. Lemma of upper sterile floret elliptic; 4.2-5.9 mm long; 1 length of lower sterile floret; chartaceous; scabrous; ciliate on margins; acute; awned. Awn of upper sterile floret dorsal; arising 0.5 way up back of lemma; geniculate; 3-6.6 mm long. Fertile florets female. Fertile lemma ovate; 3.4-4.5 mm long; cartilaginous; light brown; shiny; keeled; 3 -veined. Lemma midvein scaberulous. Lemma surface scaberulous; rough above; puberulous; hairy above. Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea; ciliolate; hairy above. Lemma apex acute; muticous, or mucronate. Palea linear; 3.8-4.8 mm long; 1 -veined; without keels. Palea apex dentate; 2 -fid.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 2.4-4.1 mm long; yellow. Staminodes two present; 0.6-1.2 mm long. Stigmas 2; protogynous. Styles 0.8-2.3 mm long; free to the base. Ovary beaked; glabrous.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 1.3-2.2 mm long. Embryo 0.3-0.5 length of caryopsis.
    Distribution
    South America: western South America.
    Reference
    Aveneae. Connor & Renvoize 2010.

    Distribution

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Anthoxanthum quebrada (Connor & Renvoize) N.I.Villalobos & Finot appears in other Kew resources:

    Bibliography

    First published in Darwiniana, n.s., 7: 121 (2019)

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0