1. Family: Rutaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Zanthoxylum L.
      1. Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Rutaceae, J.O. Kokwaro (University of Nairobi). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1982

    Habit
    A deciduous shrub or tree to 10 m. high; stem armed with large woody spines; branches glabrous, with terminal buds protected by dark scales, armed with black or reddish recurved usually paired prickles 5–17 mm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaves 6–22 cm. long, glabrous to densely hairy; rhachis armed below with a few small scattered prickles, subterete, slightly grooved above; leaflets (1–)2–5-paired, opposite to subopposite, sessile or the terminal one on a petiolule to 15 mm., ovate–oblong to elliptic, 2.5–9.5 cm. long, (1–)2–4.3 cm. broad, acute to obtuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, slightly crenulate to subentire, chartaceous to subchartaceous, sparsely dotted with pellucid glands; lateral nerves 6–9 pairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of racemes or panicles up to 9 cm. long, borne at the base of the new branches below the first leaves (rarely in the axils).
    Flowers
    Flowers usually clustered, yellowish green, 4–5-merous. Male flowers:pedicels slender, 1.5–2 mm. long; sepals united at the base, 0.4 mm. long; petals elliptic, 2.5 mm. long, 1 mm. broad; stamens 4–5; filaments as long as the petals; gynophore very short; vestigial ovary ellipsoid, 1.5 mm. long. Female flowers subsessile; staminodes reduced to the aborted anthers; ovary 1.1–1.6 mm. long.
    Male
    Male flowers:pedicels slender, 1.5–2 mm. long; sepals united at the base, 0.4 mm. long; petals elliptic, 2.5 mm. long, 1 mm. broad; stamens 4–5; filaments as long as the petals; gynophore very short; vestigial ovary ellipsoid, 1.5 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers subsessile; staminodes reduced to the aborted anthers; ovary 1.1–1.6 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit an oblique subglobose follicle, 5–8 mm. in diameter, glandular-bullate; stipe up to 1.5 mm. long.
    Seeds
    Seed black and shiny, 5–7 mm. in diameter.
    [FZ]

    Rutaceae, F. A. Mendoça. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Deciduous shrub or small tree up to 6 m. tall; branches glabrous with terminal buds protected by dark scales, aculeate, aculei 2–10 mm. long, ± recurved, reddish becoming greyish.
    Leaves
    Leaves 6–20 cm. long; petiole 1–5 cm. long, somewhat flattened above at the base; rhachis subterete, slightly grooved above, usually aculeate below; leaflets papyraceous to subchartaceous, (1) 2–5-jugate, opposite or occasionally subopposite, sessile or the terminal one sometimes petiolulate with petiolule up to 15 mm. long; lamina 2·5–7 × 1–2·5 cm., ovate-oblong to elliptic, acute or bluntly rounded at the apex, margin slightly crenulate or subentire, rounded or obtuse at the base, sparsely dotted with pellucid glands; lateral nerves 6–9 pairs.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence glabrous, of racemes or panicles up to 9 cm. long, borne at the base of the new branches below the first leaves (rarely also in the axils); rhachis flexuous and ± pendulous in male and straight in female plants.
    Flowers
    Flowers 4-merous. Female flowers: subsessile, usually glomerate on pulvinoid nodes of the racemes; sepals 4; staminodes vestigial, reduced to the aborted anthers; ovary 1·5 mm. long, very oblique, 1-locular, 2-ovulate; ovules subapical, collateral, pendulous, 1 aborted; style short, incurved; stigma broadly discoid, peltate. Male flowers: pedicellate, usually in clusters, with slender pedicels 1·5–2 mm. long; sepals 4, 0·4 mm. long, united at the base; petals 2·5 × 1 mm., imbricate, elliptic; stamens 4 with filaments as long as the petals; anthers basifixed, deeply 2-lobed at the base; gynophore very short; vestigial ovary 1·5 mm. long, ellipsoid.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicellate, usually in clusters, with slender pedicels 1·5–2 mm. long; sepals 4, 0·4 mm. long, united at the base; petals 2·5 × 1 mm., imbricate, elliptic; stamens 4 with filaments as long as the petals; anthers basifixed, deeply 2-lobed at the base; gynophore very short; vestigial ovary 1·5 mm. long, ellipsoid.
    Female
    Female flowers: subsessile, usually glomerate on pulvinoid nodes of the racemes; sepals 4; staminodes vestigial, reduced to the aborted anthers; ovary 1·5 mm. long, very oblique, 1-locular, 2-ovulate; ovules subapical, collateral, pendulous, 1 aborted; style short, incurved; stigma broadly discoid, peltate.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 6 mm. in diam., a subsessile or stipitate somewhat oblique subglobose follicle, glandular-foveolate, with stipe up to 1·5 mm. long.
    Seeds
    Seed black, shiny.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Rwanda, Somalia, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Zanthoxylum chalybeum Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 1976 Holst, C. [2888], Tanzania K000199410
    Jan 1, 1976 Holtz [1322], Tanzania K000199409 Unknown type material
    Stuhlmann [3451], Tanzania K000199412 Unknown type material
    Merker [s.n.], Tanzania K000199411 Unknown type material
    Faulkner, H. [2156], Tanzania Fagara chalybea 7086.000
    Faulkner, H. [2216A], Tanzania Fagara chalybea 25123.000
    Faulkner, H. [2216], Tanzania Fagara chalybea 27045.000

    First published in Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 227 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Kokwaro, J.O. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Rutaceae: 1-52.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1983). Flora du Rwanda 2: 1-603. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Kokwaro, J.O. (1982). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Rutaceae: 1-52.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Engl., Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 227 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0