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  1. Family: Apocynaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Carissa L.
      1. Carissa spinarum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa to Indo-China, Australia to New Caledonia.

    [FTEA]

    Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002

    Habit
    Shrub 0.2–3 m, occasionally scrambling up to 20 m high; bark grey, slightly rough or smooth; spines simple, rarely forked, 0.5–6.2 cm long.
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate; petiole 0.5–6 mm long; blade ovate, elliptic or almost orbicular, 1–8(–17) cm long, 0.5–6 cm wide, acute or rounded at the apex, with or without a hard mucro, cuneate or rounded at the base, glabrous or pubescent, with 3–5 pairs of secondary veins.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal or occasionally axillary, dense-flowered cymes.
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant, white inside, pink to red outside; sepals (narrowly) ovate, 1.5–4.5 mm long, 0.4–1.7 mm wide, acuminate, ciliate; corolla tube 5–25 mm long, tubular, widest at the throat, pubescent at the mouth and lower lobes; lobes overlapping to the right, obliquely oblong or ovate, 4–15 mm long, 1–7 mm wide, acute at the apex; stamens inserted near the apex of the tube.
    Fruits
    Fruit red to black, globose or ellipsoid, 5–25(–60) mm long, 3–20(–60) mm in diameter.
    Figures
    Fig. 4 (p. 13).
    Habitat
    Miombo woodland, bushland, riverine forest or thicket, upland forest especially in rocky places; 0–2250 m
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widespread in tropical Africa, tropical Asia and Australia
    [FZ]

    Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg and F. K. Kupicha et al.. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985

    Calyx
    Calyx 2–4 mm. long; lobes lanceolate-subulate, glabrous, pubescent or lanate.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube 9·5–20 mm. long, slightly wider in upper half and contracted at the mouth, glabrous or sparsely pilose without, pubescent within in upper half; corolla lobes 1/3–1/2 as long as tube, lanceolate, glabrous or sparsely puberulent near the mouth on upper surface, overlapping to the right.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted near apex of tube so that the anthers reach to within 1–1·5 mm. of the mouth; anthers subsessile, 1·5–2 mm. long.
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm. long, rounded-conical, glabrous; style glabrous, stigma reaching to base of anthers.
    Fruits
    Fruit 6–11(25) mm. long, plum-shaped, green turning red to blue-black, edible, 2–4-seeded.
    Habit
    Much-branched spreading or sarmentose shrub up to 5·5 m. high or more.
    Twigs
    Young twigs densely pubescent or puberulent, rarely glabrous, the surface smooth or very finely rugose; older branches with grey-brown flaking bark.
    Spines
    Spines simple, very rarely furcate, 0·4–5·5(7) cm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaves moderately coriaceous, drying discolorous, brown or green, darker above; petiole 2·5–5 mm. long, pubescent or glabrous.
    Leaf lamina
    Lamina (1·7)2·6–6·8 x (1)1·2–4·6 cm., ovate, elliptic, obovate-elliptic or subcircular, with apex acute or obtuse, with or without mucro, and base cuneate to rounded; upper surface glabrous to pubescent, midrib slightly impressed, other veins obscure; lower surface glabrous to pubescent (hairs most dense on midrib, here sometimes almost lanate), midrib and other veins slightly raised, venation easily visible or obscure.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes short-stalked, few- to many-flowered; flowers 5 (occasionally 6)-merous, sweetly scented, the corolla white inside and pink to crimson outside.
    [FWTA]

    Apocynaceae, H. Huber. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An erect shrub up to 16 ft.high
    Flowers
    Flowers fragrant, white or purplish
    Fruits
    Fruits syncarpous berries about 1/2 in.diam.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Andaman Is., Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Laos, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Common Names

    English
    Num-num

    Other Data

    Carissa spinarum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1998 Scott Elliot, G.F. [3071], Madagascar K000233550 holotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Santapau, H. [4407], India K000821611 paratype
    Jan 1, 1998 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000233557 paratype
    Jan 1, 1998 Horne, J. [511], Seychelles K000233553 holotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Horne, J. [511], Seychelles K000233552 holotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Schimper [209], Ethiopia K000233561 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Schimper [209], Ethiopia K000233562 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Schimper [156], Ethiopia K000233564 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Welwitsch [5969], Angola K000233559 paratype
    Jan 1, 1998 Schimper, W. [1068], Ethiopia K000233563 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Brown, R. [2850], Queensland K000832930 isotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000233558 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Lugard, E.J. [16], Botswana K000282795
    Jan 1, 1998 Dechamps, R. [1187], Angola K000282797
    Jan 1, 1998 Haines, H.H. [2159], Uttaranchal K000848050 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Haines, H.H. [2159], Uttaranchal K000848051 isolectotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Shepherd [s.n.], India K000821607 holotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Shepherd [s.n.], India K000821608
    Jan 1, 1998 Smith, P.A. [1074], Botswana K000282792
    Jan 1, 1998 Smith, P.A. [97], Botswana K000282793
    Jan 1, 1998 Wallich, N. [1677], India K000821610
    Jan 1, 1998 Enews, J. [206], Botswana K000282796
    Jan 1, 1998 Hiemstra, H. [268], Botswana K000282794
    Jan 1, 1998 McGillivray, J. [488], Queensland K000832929 holotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Roxburgh, W. [s.n.], India K000832933 holotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Kerr, A.F.G. [9118], Thailand K000832932 isotype
    Jan 1, 1998 s.coll. [s.n.], Queensland K000832927 isotype
    Jan 1, 1998 s.coll. [s.n.] K000832928 isotype
    Jan 1, 1998 Vanderhorst, D.B.B. [64], Papua New Guinea K000832931 isotype
    Schimper [209], Ethiopia K000233560 isolectotype
    Stocks, J.E. [210], India K000821606 Unknown type material
    Baron, R. [709], Madagascar K000233551 holotype
    Carey, W. [s.n.], India K000821609
    Troupin, G. [4068], Congo, DRC Carissa edulis 2274.000
    Eyles, F. [8778], Zimbabwe Carissa edulis 2275.000
    Smith, A.R. [437], Yemen Carissa edulis 30600.000
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 1680], Myanmar Carissa villosa K001113836
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1680] Carissa villosa K001113837
    Telfair, C. [Cat. no. 1681], Mauritius Carissa coriacea K001113838
    Jan 1, 1998 Wallich, N. [1679], India Carissa macrophylla K000832934 isotype
    Dalzell [s.n.], Maharashtra Carissa macrophylla K000832935 lectotype
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1679] Carissa macrophylla K001113833
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1679] Carissa macrophylla K001113834
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1679], India Carissa macrophylla K001113835
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1678] Carissa diffusa K001113827
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1678] Carissa diffusa K001113828
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1678] Carissa diffusa K001113829
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1678], India Carissa diffusa K001113830
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1678], India Carissa diffusa K001113831
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 1678] Carissa diffusa K001113832
    Beddome, R.H. [s.n.], India Carissa suavissima K000832987
    Beddome, R.H. [s.n.], India Carissa suavissima K000832986
    Beddome, R.H. [s.n.], India Carissa suavissima K000832985

    Bibliography

    First published in Mant. Pl. 2: 559 (1771)

    Accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Middleton, D.J. (2014). Flore du Cambodge du Laos et du Viêt-Nam 33: 1-276. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Bruyns, P.V. (2014). The Apocynaceae of Namibia Strelitzia 34: 1-158. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Middleton, D.J. (2011). Flora of peninsular Malaysia, II, 2: 1-235. Institut Penyelidikan Perhutanan Malaysia.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Middleton, D.J. (2007). Apocynaceae (subfamilies Rauvolfioideae and Apocynoideae) Flora Malesiana 18: 1-474. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Strugnell, A.M. (2006). A checklist of the Spermatophytes of Mt. Mulanje, Malawi Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Leeuwenberg & van Dilst in Wageningen Univ. Pap. 01.1: 35, t. 7–10, map 6–7 (2001).
    • L., Syst. ed. 12, 2: 189 (1770).
    • L., Mantissa 1: 52 (1767)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/