1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Thesium L.
      1. Thesium cymosum A.W.Hill

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical Africa to Limpopo.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Lectotype, chosen here: Malawi, Shire Highlands, top of Zomba, Nakosoka, fl. & fr. x.1880, Buchanan 122 (K, lectotype; E).
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.4–0.7 mm long, nearly hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.7 mm long Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.4–0.7 mm long, nearly hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.7 mm long.
    Style
    Style 1–1.8 mm long; stigma reaching nearly or quite to top of anthers
    Fruits
    Fruit 2.5–3.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, pallid, strongly ribbed and reticulate. Fruit 2.5–3.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, pallid, strongly ribbed and reticulate.
    Ecology
    Grassland; 900–2300 m.
    Note
    The type specimens of T. fenarium have the flowers borne either singly or in 3-flowered cymules, which vitiates the supposed distinction between T. fenarium (in Baker & Hill's key, 1911, said to have flowers borne singly) and T. cymosum (flowers in 3-flowered cymules).
    Distribution
    ZIM N, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ MS Zimbabwe In the Flora Zambesiaca area, apparently confined to the Shire Highlands and nearby heights, and the montane areas of eastern Zimbabwe, extending into Mozambique across the Chimanimani Mountains. Thesium costatum A.W. Hill (1915) and T. exile N.E. Br. (19 Mozambique Malawi
    Habit
    Perennial herb with woody stolons; stems many, tufted, c. 120–300 mm tall, erect, well branched from base or higher, strongly ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in midribs of leaves and bracts, leafy. Perennial herb with woody stolons; stems many, tufted, c. 120–300 mm tall, erect, well branched from base or higher, strongly ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in midribs of leaves and bracts, leafy
    Leaves
    Leaves: lowermost reduced to appressed scales, developed ones ascending, often incurved, 3–8 × 0.4–1.2 mm, smaller upwards and passing into bracts, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, very acute to acuminate, apiculate, margins sometimes very minutely scabridulous, midrib strongly raised on both surfaces. Leaves: lowermost reduced to appressed scales, developed ones ascending, often incurved, 3–8 × 0.4–1.2 mm, smaller upwards and passing into bracts, lanceolate to linear-lanceolate, very acute to acuminate, apiculate, margins sometimes very minutely scabridulous, midrib strongly raised on both surfaces
    Flowers
    Flowers either solitary or in 3-flowered cymules in the axils of each bract (often all solitary except for terminal cyme), 1–10 racemosely arranged at branchlet apices, the whole often forming a well branched panicle, often overtopped by younger growth. Flowers either solitary or in 3-flowered cymules in the axils of each bract (often all solitary except for terminal cyme), 1–10 racemosely arranged at branchlet apices, the whole often forming a well branched panicle, often overtopped by younger growth
    Bracts
    Bracts (lowermost) 3–7 × 0.6–1 mm, leaf-like, adnate for c. 1 mm to pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2, similar to bracts but smaller. Bracts (lowermost) 3–7 × 0.6–1 mm, leaf-like, adnate for c. 1 mm to pedicel or peduncle; bracteoles 2, similar to bracts but smaller
    Pedicel
    Pedicels (lowermost) 2–4(10) mm long. Pedicels (lowermost) 2–4(10) mm long
    Perianth
    Perianth white or greenish-white within; tube 0.8–1.5 mm long, external glands obscure; lobes 1–1.8 × 0.6–1 mm, triangular, subacute, margins slightly inflexed, ± fimbriate-erose, especially in lower part. Perianth white or greenish-white within; tube 0.8–1.5 mm long, external glands obscure; lobes 1–1.8 × 0.6–1 mm, triangular, subacute, margins slightly inflexed, ± fimbriate-erose, especially in lower part
    Pistil
    Style 1–1.8 mm long; stigma reaching nearly or quite to top of anthers.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Zimbabwe

    Thesium cymosum A.W.Hill appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1989 Scott Elliot, G.F. [8541], Malawi K000431491 lectotype
    Jan 1, 1989 Buchanan, J. [122], Malawi K000431493 lectotype
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000431494 Unknown type material
    Buchanan, J. [1357], Malawi K000431490
    Buchanan, J. [104], Malawi K000431492
    Purves, J.M. [25], Malawi K000431495 Unknown type material

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1910: 183 (1910)

    Accepted by

    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 65 (1954). TAB. 45, fig. E.
    • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 2: 460 (1932).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 425 (1911).
    • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910: 183 (1910).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0