1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Thesium L.
      1. Thesium goetzeanum Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Kenya to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    Style
    Style 0.6–1.1 mm long; stigma reaching nearly to top of anthers
    Ecology
    Grassland and open grassy woodland on a variety of soils including serpentine; c. 770–2350 m.
    Note
    Thesium goetzeanum is characterized by its flowers, usually solitary in the axil of each bract, c. 7–13 racemosely arranged, relatively broad lanceolate bracts often with minutely scabridulous margins, usually adnate to the pedicel right up to the bracteoles (often adnate only halfway up the peduncle when 3-flowered cymules occur), perianth lobes with apical beard, and pale fruits with strongly raised ribs but less strongly raised reticulations. The plants often dry a peculiar shade of mauvish-grey, but can also dry greenish or fuscous. Variable in aspect: stems short and sparingly branched when regenerating after fire, taller and fastigiately branched when unburnt. Probably more or less glaucous in life, often drying a peculiar shade of mauvish-grey (as does its ally T. brevibarbatum). N.E. Brown (loc. cit. 460) suggested that the type of T. rogersii came, not from Victoria Falls as stated by the collector, but from the Transvaal; however, I see no reason to concur as the species is clearly common and widespread in Zimbabwe. Hill, when describing T. rogersii, diagnosed it against T. gracile, from which it is amply distinct. The type of T. rogersii differs from that of T. goetzeanum in the length of the bracts (which character, as well as overall height of the plants, was used by N.E. Brown (loc. cit. 456–458) in his key). However, length of bracts is variable over the whole range of the species and there is nothing else to distinguish them.
    Distribution
    Malawi Zimbabwe ZAM B, ZAM C, ZAM E, ZIM N, ZIM W, ZIM C, ZIM E, MAL N, MOZ M, MOZ S Zambia Mozambique Also in Tanzania, Rwanda and South Africa (former Transvaal, KwaZulu-Natal).
    Habit
    Perennial herb with thick woody caudex; stems tufted from crown, 110–300(600) mm tall, sparingly to well branched, strongly ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in midribs of leaves and bracts, leafy. Perennial herb with thick woody caudex; stems tufted from crown, 110–300(600) mm tall, sparingly to well branched, strongly ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in midribs of leaves and bracts, leafy
    Leaves
    Leaves ascending to somewhat spreading and then slightly recurved, 6–20(30) × 1–1.5(1.7) mm midway on stem, smaller upwards and passing into bracts, often shorter and slightly broader at base, linear-lanceolate, apex apiculate, base broad, margins pale, cartilaginous, very minutely scabridulous or smooth, thick-textured, midrib raised on both surfaces. Leaves ascending to somewhat spreading and then slightly recurved, 6–20(30) × 1–1.5(1.7) mm midway on stem, smaller upwards and passing into bracts, often shorter and slightly broader at base, linear-lanceolate, apex apiculate, base broad, margins pale, cartilaginous, very minutely scabridulous or smooth, thick-textured, midrib raised on both surfaces
    Flowers
    Flowers 7–13 racemosely arranged at tips of branches, laxly panicled, usually solitary in each bract axil, occasionally paired or in 3-flowered cymules, sometimes all solitary except for 3-flowered terminal cymule. Flowers 7–13 racemosely arranged at tips of branches, laxly panicled, usually solitary in each bract axil, occasionally paired or in 3-flowered cymules, sometimes all solitary except for 3-flowered terminal cymule
    Bracts
    Bracts 4–12(20) × 1–2 mm, lanceolate, leaf-like, usually adnate to entire length of pedicel, rarely only to lower half of peduncle; bracteoles 2, 2–7.5 × 0.4–1.3 mm. Bracts 4–12(20) × 1–2 mm, lanceolate, leaf-like, usually adnate to entire length of pedicel, rarely only to lower half of peduncle; bracteoles 2, 2–7.5 × 0.4–1.3 mm
    Pedicel
    Pedicels (lowermost) 0.5–2(4) mm long; peduncles of cymules up to c. 10 mm. Pedicels (lowermost) 0.5–2(4) mm long; peduncles of cymules up to c. 10 mm
    Perianth
    Perianth greenish; tube 0.7–1.2 mm long, external glands conspicuous, elliptic, equalling tube; lobes 1.2–2 × 0.6–0.9 mm, triangular, subacute, densely white-bearded from apex. Perianth greenish; tube 0.7–1.2 mm long, external glands conspicuous, elliptic, equalling tube; lobes 1.2–2 × 0.6–0.9 mm, triangular, subacute, densely white-bearded from apex
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.2–0.5 mm long, almost hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.8 mm long. Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.2–0.5 mm long, almost hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.8 mm long
    Pistil
    Style 0.6–1.1 mm long; stigma reaching nearly to top of anthers.
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 3–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, yellowish- or slightly reddish-buff, ribs strongly raised, reticulations rather weakly raised in comparison. Fruit c. 3–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, yellowish- or slightly reddish-buff, ribs strongly raised, reticulations rather weakly raised in comparison.
    [FTEA]

    Santalaceae, P.M. Polhill, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Perennial herb with thick woody rootstock, sometimes with rhizomes; vegetative buds not very evident, ± 2 mm long, with triangular-acuminate scales 1–1.5 mm long; stems tufted from crown, 10–120 cm tall, sparingly to well branched, leafy; ribs strongly raised and extended into midribs of leaves and bracts.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly well-developed, with a few scales near base of stems, glaucous, thick-textured, ascending to somewhat spreading and then slightly recurved, linear-lanceolate, 6–20x1–1.5mm midway on stem, smaller upwards and passing into bracts, often shorter and slightly broader at base, apex apiculate, base broad, margins pale, cartilaginous, very minutely scabridulous or smooth, midrib raised on both surfaces.
    Flowers
    Flowers 7–13 racemosely arranged at tips of branches, laxly panicled, usually solitary in each bract axil, occasionally paired or in 3-flowered cymules, sometimes all solitary except for 3-flowered terminal cymule; bracts usually adnate to entire length of pedicel, rarely only to lower half of peduncle, lanceolate, leaf-like, 4–12(–20)x1–2 mm; bracteoles 2, 2–7.5x0.4–1.3 mm; pedicels up to 0.5–2(–4) mm long; peduncles of cymules up to 10 mm.
    Perianth
    Perianth greenish; tube 0.7–1.2 mm long, external glands ± conspicuous, elliptic, equalling tube; lobes triangular, 1.2–2x0.6–0.9 mm, subacute, densely white-bearded from apex.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.2–0.5 mm long, almost hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.8 mm long.
    Pistil
    Style 0.6–1.1 mm long; stigma reaching nearly to top of anthers.
    Fruits
    Fruit yellowish buff or slightly reddish buff, ellipsoid-globose, 3–3.5 mm long, 2.5–3 mm in diameter, ribs strongly raised, reticulations rather weakly raised in comparison, becoming stronger only at final maturation.
    Figures
    Fig. 1/16 (page 4).
    Habitat
    Grassland, often in areas subject to fires; 250–2050 m
    Distribution
    K4 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Burundi, Cape Provinces, Free State, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Thesium goetzeanum Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Rogers, F.A. [5467], Zimbabwe K000431472 Unknown type material
    Rogers, F.A. [5467], Zimbabwe K000431473
    Goetze [1379], Tanzania K000743673 isotype
    Rogers, F.A. [14780], South Africa Thesium deceptum K000431774 Unknown type material
    Richardson, A.J. [s.n.], South Africa Thesium macrogyne K000431676 Unknown type material
    Tyson, W. [3157], South Africa Thesium orientale K000431673
    Cooper, T. [3094], South Africa Thesium orientale K000431675
    Baur, R. [336], South Africa Thesium orientale K000431672
    Hutton, H. [s.n.], South Africa Thesium orientale K000431674
    Tyson [1863], South Africa Thesium nigrum K000431690
    Cooper, T. [826], South Africa Thesium nigrum K000431687 Unknown type material
    Cooper, T. [1061], South Africa Thesium nigrum K000431691
    Wilms, F. [2253], South Africa Thesium nigrum K000431688
    Guthrie [4954], South Africa Thesium nigrum K000431689
    Sankey, H.J. [223], South Africa Thesium coriarium K000431686 Unknown type material
    Troupin, G. [6165], Rwanda Thesium caespitosum K000431449 Unknown type material

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 306 (1901)

    Accepted by

    • Visser, N., Le Roux, M.M. & van Wyk, B.-E. (2018). A taxonomic revision of the Thesium goetzeanum species complex (Santalaceae) from Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland Journal of South African Botany 119: 45-62.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (2005). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Santalaceae: 1-27.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 2: 459 (1932). TAB. 48, fig. B.
    • F.C. 5, 2: 181 (1915).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 418 (1911).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 30: 306 (1901).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Visser, N., Le Roux, M.M. & van Wyk, B.-E. (2018). A taxonomic revision of the Thesium goetzeanum species complex (Santalaceae) from Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland Journal of South African Botany 119: 45-62.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (2005). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Santalaceae: 1-27.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 551 (1949).
    • N.E. Br. in Fl. Pl. Ferns Trans.: 459 (1932).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 142 (1932).
    • Hill in F.C. 5(2): 181 (1915).
    • Baker & Hill in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 418 (1911).
    • Engl. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 30: 306 (1904).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0