1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Thesium L.
      1. Thesium mukense A.W.Hill

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to NE. KwaZulu-Natal.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Lectotype, chosen here (see note below), from Kenya (Kassner 943, K, lectotype; BM).
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the axil of each bract, c. 5–10 racemosely arranged at the tips of the branchlets, the inflorescence often terminating in a 3-flowered cymule Flowers solitary in the axil of each bract, c. 5–10 racemosely arranged at the tips of the branchlets, the inflorescence often terminating in a 3-flowered cymule.
    Style
    Style 0.5–0.7 mm long; stigma reaching top of tube
    Ecology
    Dune forest and sandy grassland.
    Note
    Thesium mukense is confused in herbaria with both T. schweinfurthii and T. resedoides; both these species have a woody caudex while T. mukense appears to lack a caudex and to have only woody stolons. Thesium schweinfurthii is further distinguished by its few-flowered inflorescences and smaller anthers, while T. resedoides differs in its mostly shorter, relatively broader, and strongly recurved bracts. See also under T. dissitum. The syntypes of T. mukense are Kassner 943 (Kenya, Muka), Scott-Elliot 6407 (Kenya, Ukamba) and Buchanan 45 (Malawi, Mt. Mulanje); Kassner 943 has been chosen as lectotype not only because it is a tolerably good specimen, but also because its locality supplied the specific epithet. Scott-Elliot's collection is the same species, but is fragmentary. The specimen of Buchanan 45 seen by Hill was destroyed in the Berlin fire; a duplicate in the Edinburgh Herbarium proves to be T. whyteanum. All the material of T. mukense available to me has come from the area between Marracuene and Matutuíne (Bella Vista) in Mozambique and just across the border in Ndumu Game Reserve, Natal, as well as several specimens from Kenya collected at considerably higher altitudes than the southern material.
    Distribution
    MOZ M Mozambique Also in Kenya and South Africa (NE KwaZulu-Natal adjoining Mozambique border).
    Habit
    Perennial herb with woody stolons c. 3–4 mm in diameter; stems in small tufts, c. 150–300 mm long, erect, well branched from the base or a little higher, shallowly ribbed by decurrent leaves, leafy. Perennial herb with woody stolons c. 3–4 mm in diameter; stems in small tufts, c. 150–300 mm long, erect, well branched from the base or a little higher, shallowly ribbed by decurrent leaves, leafy
    Leaves
    Leaves ± ascending, primary ones on main stems c. 15–45 × 0.8–1.2 mm, shorter upwards and passing into bracts, linear, apex apiculate, margins cartilaginous, smooth. Leaves ± ascending, primary ones on main stems c. 15–45 × 0.8–1.2 mm, shorter upwards and passing into bracts, linear, apex apiculate, margins cartilaginous, smooth
    Bracts
    Bracts c. 5–17 × 0.6–0.8 mm, linear, leaf-like, adnate to entire pedicel; bracteoles 2, c. 1.5–5 × 0.4–0.6 mm. Bracts c. 5–17 × 0.6–0.8 mm, linear, leaf-like, adnate to entire pedicel; bracteoles 2, c. 1.5–5 × 0.4–0.6 mm
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 1–3.5 mm long. Pedicels 1–3.5 mm long
    Perianth
    Perianth colour “white”; tube 0.6–1 mm long, external glands ellipsoid, inconspicuous; lobes 1.2–1.7 × 0.7–0.8 mm, triangular, acute, white-bearded from apex. Perianth colour “white”; tube 0.6–1 mm long, external glands ellipsoid, inconspicuous; lobes 1.2–1.7 × 0.7–0.8 mm, triangular, acute, white-bearded from apex
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long, hidden by anthers; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long. Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long, hidden by anthers; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long
    Pistil
    Style 0.5–0.7 mm long; stigma reaching top of tube.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3–3.5 × 3–3.5 mm, light yellowish- to reddish-brown, strongly ribbed and reticulate. Fruit 3–3.5 × 3–3.5 mm, light yellowish- to reddish-brown, strongly ribbed and reticulate.
    [FTEA]

    Santalaceae, P.M. Polhill, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Perennial herb with woody rhizomes ± 3–4 mm in diameter; vegetative buds ± 2 mm long; stems yellow-green to grey-green or somewhat glaucous, in small tufts, 10–30 cm tall, erect, well-branched from the base or a little higher, leafy, shallowly ribbed by decurrent leaves.
    Leaves
    Leaves rather fleshy, ± ascending, primary ones on main stems linear, often rather curved, 10–45x0.6–1.2 mm, shorter upwards and passing into bracts, apex apiculate, smooth.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the axil of each bract, 5–14 racemosely arranged at the tips of the branchlets, the inflorescence often terminating in a 3-flowered cymule; bracts adnate to entire pedicel, linear, leaf-like, 5–17x0.6–0.8 mm; bracteoles 2, ± 1.5–5x0.4–0.6 mm; pedicels 1–3.5(–5) mm long.
    Perianth
    Perianth green or orange-buff outside, white inside; tube 0.6–1 mm long, external glands ellipsoid, inconspicuous; lobes triangular, 1.2–1.7 mm long, acute, white-bearded from apex.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.3–0.5 mm long, hidden by anthers; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long.
    Pistil
    Style 0.5–0.7 mm long; stigma reaching top of tube or a little above.
    Fruits
    Fruit light yellowish brown to reddish brown, ellipsoid-globose to globose, 3–4 mm long, 2.5–3.5 mm in diameter, strongly ribbed and reticulate; stipe 0.5–1 mm.
    Habitat
    Upland grassland, wooded grassland and seasonally flooded grassland, areas subject to burning or erosion, descending to lower altitudes along rivers, on loam, clay or lava ash; (300–)1100–2500 m
    Distribution
    K4 K6 K7 T2 T3

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Tanzania

    Thesium mukense A.W.Hill appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1989 Kässner, T. [943], Kenya K000431458 lectotype
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [6407], Kenya K000431460 Unknown type material
    Buchanan [45], Malawi K000431459 Unknown type material

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1910: 186 (1910)

    Accepted by

    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (2005). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Santalaceae: 1-27.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 417 (1911).
    • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910: 186 (1910).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (2005). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Santalaceae: 1-27.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Baker & Hill in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 417 (1911), excl. specim. Buchanan 45.
    • A.W.Hill in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1910: 186 (1910), excl. specim. Buchanan 45.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0