1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Thesium L.
      1. Thesium resedoides A.W.Hill

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Angola to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Angola.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels/peduncles 0–2(3) mm long
    Style
    Style 0.6–1 mm long; stigma reaching top of tube
    Ecology
    Woodland and grassland; up to c. 950 m.
    Note
    The only records from Botswana have been made roughly between Serowe and Gaborone but the species is surely in the central and western parts of the country as it occurs in Angola and Namibia. The distribution pattern seems to spread eastwards through the centre of the former Transvaal to the Tongaland plain in Mozambique and Natal. Thesium resedoides is characterized by its twiggy habit with short racemose inflorescences terminating all the twiglets and thus forming large well branched panicles, the bracts short, very acute, adnate to the pedicels right up to the bracteoles, both bracts and bracteoles often sharply recurved, and perianth lobes bearded from the apex. Specimens from the western part of its range often dry greenish or light fuscous, while in southern Mozambique and adjoining parts of KwaZulu-Natal, specimens dry dark fuscous; these specimens also have larger fruits, the measurements being given in parenthesis in the formal description.
    Distribution
    Mozambique BOT SE, MOZ M Botswana Also in Angola, Namibia and South Africa (Northern Cape, North-West, Limpopo, Gauteng, Mpumalanga and NE KwaZulu-Natal Provinces).
    Habit
    Perennial herb with a woody taproot up to c. 15 mm diameter at crown and woody stolons up to c. 10 mm in diameter; stems many tufted from the crown and at intervals along the stolons, 90–400 mm long, erect or ± sprawling, well branched from the base, shallowly ribbed by decurrent leaves and bracts, leafy. Perennial herb with a woody taproot up to c. 15 mm diameter at crown and woody stolons up to c. 10 mm in diameter; stems many tufted from the crown and at intervals along the stolons, 90–400 mm long, erect or ± sprawling, well branched from the base, shallowly ribbed by decurrent leaves and bracts, leafy
    Leaves
    Leaves spreading or ascending, often up- or down-curved, c. 8–20(30) × 0.6–1.6 mm on middle part of stems, smaller upwards and passing into bracts, linear, apex tapered into a long acumen, margins pale, cartilaginous, often minutely scabridulous. Leaves spreading or ascending, often up- or down-curved, c. 8–20(30) × 0.6–1.6 mm on middle part of stems, smaller upwards and passing into bracts, linear, apex tapered into a long acumen, margins pale, cartilaginous, often minutely scabridulous
    Flowers
    Flowers often solitary in the axils of the bracts, sometimes some in 3-flowered cymules, 6–17 racemosely arranged, terminal flowers the oldest, often in a 3-flowered cymule, the “racemes” further arranged in large much branched panicles. Flowers often solitary in the axils of the bracts, sometimes some in 3-flowered cymules, 6–17 racemosely arranged, terminal flowers the oldest, often in a 3-flowered cymule, the “racemes” further arranged in large much branched panicles
    Bracts
    Bracts (lowermost) 3.2–8 × 0.6–1.5 mm, linear to linear-lanceolate, markedly apiculate, adnate to the entire pedicel/peduncle, often strongly recurved, margins often very minutely scabridulous; bracteoles 2, 1.5–3.5 × 0.4–0.8 mm, resembling the bracts but only about half their length. Bracts (lowermost) 3.2–8 × 0.6–1.5 mm, linear to linear-lanceolate, markedly apiculate, adnate to the entire pedicel/peduncle, often strongly recurved, margins often very minutely scabridulous; bracteoles 2, 1.5–3.5 × 0.4–0.8 mm, resembling the bracts but only about half their length
    Pedicels and Peduncles
    Pedicels/peduncles 0–2(3) mm long.
    Perianth
    Perianth greenish outside; tube 0.7–1 mm long; lobes 1.3–1.7 × 0.7–1 mm, triangular, subacute, white-bearded from apex. Perianth greenish outside; tube 0.7–1 mm long; lobes 1.3–1.7 × 0.7–1 mm, triangular, subacute, white-bearded from apex
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.3–0.6 mm long, almost or quite hidden by anthers; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long. Stamens inserted at base of perianth lobes; filaments 0.3–0.6 mm long, almost or quite hidden by anthers; anthers 0.5–0.8 mm long
    Pistil
    Style 0.6–1 mm long; stigma reaching top of tube.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2.5(4) × 2.25–2.5(3.6) mm, light yellowish-brown, strongly ribbed and reticulate. Fruit 2.5(4) × 2.25–2.5(3.6) mm, light yellowish-brown, strongly ribbed and reticulate.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland

    Thesium resedoides A.W.Hill appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1989 Government Herbarium [6985], South Africa K000431679 Unknown type material
    Burke [s.n.], South Africa K000431680 Unknown type material
    Baum, H. [152], Angola K000431480 Unknown type material
    Leendertz, R. [1335], South Africa K000431683
    Rogers, F.A. [s.n.], South Africa K000431681
    Rogers, F.A. [22146], South Africa K000431682
    Government Herbarium [208], South Africa K000431678
    Junod [1301], South Africa Thesium junodii K000431684
    Wahlberg [s.n.], South Africa Thesium junodii K000431685

    First published in Bull. Misc. Inform. Kew 1910: 187 (1910)

    Accepted by

    • Visser, N., Le Roux, M.M. & van Wyk, B.-E. (2018). A taxonomic revision of the Thesium goetzeanum species complex (Santalaceae) from Lesotho, South Africa and Swaziland Journal of South African Botany 119: 45-62.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Burtt Davy, Fl. Pl. Ferns Transvaal, part 2: 460 (1932).
    • F.C. 5, 2: 181 (1915).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 419 (1911).
    • Bull. Misc. Inform., Kew 1910: 187 (1910).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0