1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Thesium L.
      1. Thesium subaphyllum Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Ethiopia to S. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Santalaceae, P.M. Polhill, B.A., Ph.D., F.L.S. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2005

    Habit
    Annual herb with a small taproot; stems green to grey-green, 1(–few) from a taproot, erect, 0.3–1 m tall, virgately branched above, nearly leafless; ribs expanding into flattened wings up to ± 1 mm broad and terminating in the midribs of the bracts.
    Leaves
    Leaves:developed leaves only 2 near base of stem, opposite, linear, 20–30x1–1.4 mm; cauline leaves alternate, reduced to scales, closely appressed, lanceolate, 1–2x0.4–0.8 mm, acuminate, midrib strongly raised beneath.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in axils of bracts, sessile, 10–50 in lax spikes, laxly panicled; bracts linear-lanceolate, 1–1.5x0.4–0.6 mm, acuminate; bracteoles 2, similar but smaller than bracts.
    Perianth
    Perianth yellowish, white inside; tube 0.5–1 mm long, with glands lacking or no more than small swellings between the lobes; lobes triangular, 0.6–1.2 mm long, subacute, margins inflexed, membranous, ± erose.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.2–0.5 mm long, almost hidden by anthers, anthers 0.6–0.8 mm long.
    Pistil
    Style 0.8–1.6 mm long; stigma reaching top of anthers.
    Fruits
    Fruit pallid, ellipsoid-globose to globose, 3–4 mm long, 2.5–4 mm in diameter, strongly ribbed and reticulate, the reticulations rather more strongly raised than the ribs, dendroid-ruminate.
    Figures
    Fig. 1/1–3 (page 4).
    Habitat
    Grassland, sometimes after fires, variously recorded on rocks, limestone, sand and lava ash; 60–2250 m
    Distribution
    K1 K4 K5 K6 K7 T2 T3 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type from Tanzania.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels wanting Pedicels wanting.
    Perianth
    Perianth yellowish; tube 0.7–1 mm long, external glands wanting; lobes 0.6–1.2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, triangular, subacute, margins inflexed, membranous, ± erose Perianth yellowish; tube 0.7–1 mm long, external glands wanting; lobes 0.6–1.2 × 0.5–0.8 mm, triangular, subacute, margins inflexed, membranous, ± erose.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.25–0.5 mm long, almost hidden by anthers, anthers 0.6–0.8 mm long Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.25–0.5 mm long, almost hidden by anthers, anthers 0.6–0.8 mm long.
    Style
    Style 0.8–1.6 mm long, stigma reaching top of anthers
    Fruits
    Fruit 3–3.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, pallid, strongly ribbed and reticulate, the reticulations rather more strongly raised than the ribs, dendroid-ruminate. Fruit 3–3.5 × 2.5–3.5 mm, pallid, strongly ribbed and reticulate, the reticulations rather more strongly raised than the ribs, dendroid-ruminate.
    Ecology
    In grassland and woodland; c. 400–2100 m.
    Note
    Easily recognized among species having perianth lobes without an apical beard by its winged stems. Specimens from the Flora Zambesiaca area (and the type specimens) appear to be annual; some Angolan material shows signs of perennation.
    Distribution
    Zimbabwe ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM C, ZIM N, MAL N, MOZ N Zambia Mozambique Malawi Also in Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Katanga (Shaba) Province of Dem. Rep. Congo and Angola.
    Habit
    Either annual or perennial and then with a very small woody caudex; stems usually solitary, 500 mm–1 m tall, erect, simple below, virgately branched above, ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in the midribs of the bracts, ribs expanding into flattened wings up to c. 1 mm broad, nearly leafless. Either annual or perennial and then with a very small woody caudex; stems usually solitary, 500 mm–1 m tall, erect, simple below, virgately branched above, ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in the midribs of the bracts, ribs expanding into flattened wings up to c. 1 mm broad, nearly leafless
    Leaves
    Leaves: developed leaves only two (possibly cotyledons) near base of stem, opposite, c. 25–30 × 1.4 mm, linear; cauline leaves alternate, reduced to scales c. 1–2 × 0.4–0.8 mm, lanceolate, acuminate, closely appressed, midrib strongly raised below. Leaves: developed leaves only two (possibly cotyledons) near base of stem, opposite, c. 25–30 × 1.4 mm, linear; cauline leaves alternate, reduced to scales c. 1–2 × 0.4–0.8 mm, lanceolate, acuminate, closely appressed, midrib strongly raised below
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in bract axils, sessile, c. 16–50 in lax spikes laxly panicled. Flowers solitary in bract axils, sessile, c. 16–50 in lax spikes laxly panicled
    Bracts
    Bracts 1.1–1.2 × 0.4–0.6 mm, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; bracteoles 2, similar but smaller. Bracts 1.1–1.2 × 0.4–0.6 mm, linear-lanceolate, acuminate; bracteoles 2, similar but smaller
    Pistil
    Style 0.8–1.6 mm long, stigma reaching top of anthers.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Thesium subaphyllum Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1989 Welwitsch [6434], Angola K000431482 Unknown type material

    First published in Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas, C: 168 (1895)

    Accepted by

    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Polhill, R.M. (2005). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Santalaceae: 1-27.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 39: 179 (1969). TAB. 45, fig A
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 421 (1911).
    • Pflanzenw. Ost-Afrikas C: 168 (1895).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Agnew, A.D.Q. & Agnew, S., Upland Kenya Wild Flowers, ed. 2: 159 (1994).
    • A.G. Miller in Fl. Eth. & Erit. 3: 379, fig. 116.1.14 (1989).
    • Vollesen in Opera Bot. 59: 63 (1980).
    • Lawalrée in Bulletin du Jardin Botanique National de Belgique 39: 179 (1969).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 142 (1932).
    • Baker & Hill in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 421 (1911).
    • Engl., Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 168 (1895).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0