1. Family: Santalaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Thesium L.
      1. Thesium whyteanum Rendle

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Malawi (Mt. Mulanje), E. Zimbabwe (Chimanimani Mountains).

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Type
    Type:Malawi, Mulanje Mt., c. 1828 m, x.1891, Whyte 45 (BM, holotype).
    Style
    Style 0.25–0.4 mm (0.4–1 mm) long; stigma scarcely or just reaching base of anthers (sometimes reaching top of anthers)
    Ecology
    Grassland, either short or long and rough, sometimes in rocky places with Xerophyta and heaths, or in scrubby forest margins; 1850–2300 m on Mulanje, 1600–2400 m on the Chimanimanis. Apparently endemic to these two mountains, where it is common and widespread.
    Note
    The species is characterized by its stout stems, virgately branched only in the upper part and there densely clad in erect acicular leaves, and long, crowded, conspicuously bracteate inflorescences. The plant from the Chimanimanis differs slightly from the Mulanje plant: often fewer cymules in each inflorescence and these always 7–15-flowered, perianth lobes and anthers sometimes longer, style mostly longer (see parameters in parenthesis in formal description; but the plant reaching 3 m in height was recorded on Mulanje). The larger cymules give the Chimanimani plant a slightly different facies from the Mulanje plant, but they agree in essential characters: their differences seem consistent with long isolation and scarcely warrant infraspecific recognition.
    Distribution
    Malawi ZIM E, MAL S Zimbabwe
    Habit
    Spindly subshrub c. 30–60 cm(3m) tall; stems 1–several from a woody stoloniferous stock, simple and eventually nude below, virgately branched above and there closely leafy, young stems ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in midrib of leaves and bracts. Spindly subshrub c. 30–60 cm(3m) tall; stems 1–several from a woody stoloniferous stock, simple and eventually nude below, virgately branched above and there closely leafy, young stems ribbed by raised vascular strands terminating in midrib of leaves and bracts
    Leaves
    Leaves sharply ascending, c. 8–45 × 0.7–1 mm decreasing in size upwards and passing into bracts, acicular, apex apiculate. Leaves sharply ascending, c. 8–45 × 0.7–1 mm decreasing in size upwards and passing into bracts, acicular, apex apiculate
    Flowers
    Flowers rarely solitary, mostly in 3–7(15)-flowered dichasial cymules racemosely arranged at tips of branchlets, (6)10–23 cymules in each inflorescence, crowded. Flowers rarely solitary, mostly in 3–7(15)-flowered dichasial cymules racemosely arranged at tips of branchlets, (6)10–23 cymules in each inflorescence, crowded
    Bracts
    Bracts 5–25 × 0.8–1 mm, leaf-like, adnate to base of peduncle; bracteoles 2, 2–9 × 0.5–1 mm. Bracts 5–25 × 0.8–1 mm, leaf-like, adnate to base of peduncle; bracteoles 2, 2–9 × 0.5–1 mm
    Peduncles
    Peduncles (lowermost) 2–14 mm long. Peduncles (lowermost) 2–14 mm long
    Perianth
    Perianth probably yellowish-green; tube 0.7–1 mm long, external glands inconspicuous in contrast to the 5 bulging angles of the tube; lobes 1.2–1.7 × 1 mm (1.4–2.4 × 0.7–1 mm), triangular, subacute, white-bearded from apex. Perianth probably yellowish-green; tube 0.7–1 mm long, external glands inconspicuous in contrast to the 5 bulging angles of the tube; lobes 1.2–1.7 × 1 mm (1.4–2.4 × 0.7–1 mm), triangular, subacute, white-bearded from apex
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.2–0.3 mm (0.3–0.4 mm) long, almost hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.6(0.8) mm long. Stamens inserted at base of lobes; filaments 0.2–0.3 mm (0.3–0.4 mm) long, almost hidden by anthers; anthers 0.4–0.6(0.8) mm long
    Pistil
    Style 0.25–0.4 mm (0.4–1 mm) long; stigma scarcely or just reaching base of anthers (sometimes reaching top of anthers).
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 2.5–3 × 2.5–3 mm, yellowish-buff to light red-brown, 5 ribs raised, 5 scarcely so, reticulations weakly raised. Fruit c. 2.5–3 × 2.5–3 mm, yellowish-buff to light red-brown, 5 ribs raised, 5 scarcely so, reticulations weakly raised.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Malawi, Zimbabwe

    Thesium whyteanum Rendle appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1998 Chapman, J.D. [6064], Malawi K000049199
    Jan 1, 1998 Chapman, J.D. [5779], Malawi K000049198
    Apr 7, 1989 Chapman, J.D. [7970], Malawi K000049194
    Jan 1, 1989 Phipps, J.B. [664], Zimbabwe K000049209
    Jan 1, 1989 Goodier [37], Zimbabwe K000049207
    Jan 1, 1989 Adamson, G. [373], Malawi K000049196
    Jan 1, 1989 West, O. [3647], Zimbabwe K000049210
    Jan 1, 1989 Finlay, R. [10], Zimbabwe K000049208
    Jackson, G. [1966], Malawi K000049205
    Brass, L.J. [16750], Malawi K000049201
    Brass, L.J. [16406], Malawi K000049206
    Chapman, J.D. [662], Malawi K000049200
    Richards, H.M. [16589], Malawi K000049204
    Pawek, J. [3838], Malawi K000049203
    Salubeni, A.J. [1588], Malawi K000049193
    Blackmore, S. [371], Malawi K000049197
    Blackmore, S. [405], Malawi K000049195
    Wild, H [6147], Malawi K000049202

    First published in Trans. Linn. Soc. London, Bot. 4: 42 (1894)

    Accepted by

    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Mem. New York Bot. Gard. 9: 65 (1954).
    • F.T.A. 6, 1: 415 (1911).
    • Trans. Linn. Soc., London, Bot. 4: 42, t. 9 figs. 1–5 (1894).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Pope, G.V., Polhill, R.M. & Martins, E.S. (eds.) (2006). Flora Zambesiaca 9(3): 1-277. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0