1. Family: Orobanchaceae Vent.
    1. Genus: Alectra Thunb.
      1. Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa to Philippines.

    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: South Africa, Cape of Good Hope, Bulow s.n., type not designated
    Habit
    Annual herb 13–38 cm high.
    Stem
    Stems erect, simple or sparingly branched above, occasionally with numerous lateral branches, terete or quadrangular with furrows, variously pilose to hispid with patent or retrorse hairs
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile to shortly petiolate, oblong-lanceolate to lanceolate or ovate to broadly ovate to suborbicular, 12–32 mm long, 6–12(–18) mm wide, lower leaves rounded at the base and apex, upper cuneate at base and acute at apex, margins coarsely acutely toothed, 3(–5)veined from the base, hispid above and on veins beneath
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in leaf axils forming congested inflorescense; bracts leaf-like, coarsely toothed, hispid to subglabrous; pedicels 0–0.5 mm
    Calyx
    Calyx subequal, 6–8 mm long, lobes 3–5 mm, acutely acuminate, ciliate on the veins and margins, 10-veined
    Corolla
    Corolla pale yellow with purplish veins, 8–10 mm, soon withering and persisting
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal; upper 2 filaments glabrous, lower 2 bearded; anthers apiculate
    Fruits
    Capsule globose, ± 5 mm in diameter, glabrous
    Figures
    Fig 33, p 113
    Ecology
    Montane and submontane grassland, rocky grassy slopes, riverine and secondary forest, forest margins, swampy and moist places; 0–2750 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); widespread
    Note
    An extremely variable species with an Africa-wide distribution. The species has been variously separated into varieties based on leaf-shape and pubescence. I (S.A.G.) have seen a lot of material both from W and E Africa and have found it very difficult to separate the varieties as recognized by Hepper (op. cit.) and Philcox (op. cit.). The type variety, recognized on the pubescence of the calyx and on the filaments being either all glabrous or only the longer two bearded is restricted to Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe, S Africa and Madagascar.
    Distribution
    Range: West Africa from Senegal to Sudan and Ethiopia and south to Angola and Botswana, S Asia Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Erect annual, (5)15–50(60) cm. tall; stems straight, slender to stout, simple orbranched, pilose to variously hispid.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, alternate within inflorescence, 14–25(55) x 8–18(28) mm., shape very varied from circular to ovate to broadly or narrowly lanceolate, subentire or crenate to coarsely toothed, acute or obtuse, sessile or subsessile to shortly petiolate, acute, cuneate, rounded to cordate at base, appressed or subappressed to spreading, hispid to subglabrous.
    Petiole
    Petiole 0–2(3) mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in axils of leaves or leaf-like bracts; pedicels absent or about 0.5 mm. long, rarely up to 1.5 mm. long.
    Bracts
    Bracts leaf-like, longer or shorter than flowers, usually coarsely toothed, coarsely hairy to subglabrous, ciliate.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles linear, subulate to filiform, equalling or slightly shorter than calyx, hairy ciliate to glabrous.
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–8 mm. long, 10-nerved, glabrous to ciliate on nerves and margins of lobes, very rarely overall; lobes 3–5 mm. long, subequal, triangular, acute.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale yellow to dull orange, at times with reddish-purple venation, campanulate, early marcescent, slightly or up to one third longer than calyx.
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal, longer filaments bearded, very rarely all glabrous; anther thecae apiculate.
    Fruits
    Capsule about 5.5 x 5.5 mm., spherical, glabrous.
    Note
    This is a very complicated species which has, in the main, been clarified by Hepper (in Kew Bull. 14: 405, 1960). In this work he acknowledges three varieties encompassing most of the names which have represented elements of this complex over the years. For the purpose of this work I have chosen to follow his treatment and apply his criteria here.
    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: Ethiopia, Mt Ambazion near Geraz, Schimper 1094 (K!, holo.; K!, P!, iso.)
    Habit
    Annual herb (9–)15–45 cm high.
    Stem
    Stems purplish, erect, simple or with several branches arising about midway, generally terete with furrows, pilose to hispid with fine and bulbous-based retrorse hairs.
    Roots
    Roots orange
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, ovate to ovatelanceolate, (5–)10–15(–25) mm long, (2–)3–11(–15) mm wide, base rounded or caudate, apex rounded to acute, margins entire with 2–3 coarse teeth on each side, thick, with bulbous-based coarse hairs, 3–5-veined, hispid to ± glabrous on surfaces, hairs coarse or fine, ± retrorse; petiole 0.5–2 mm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of terminal racemes, generally compact; flowers solitary in the axils of leaf-like bracts; bracts oblong-ovate to ovate, 10–12 mm long, with 1–3 prominent veins, entire or with 1–3 teeth, teeth sometimes acuminate, margins with bulbous-based hairs; bracteoles ovate, acute or obtuse; pedicels 0.5–2 mm
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–8 mm long, 10-veined, ± glabrous to pubescent with ± bulbous-based hairs on the margins and veins; lobes ovate, 2.5–3 mm, acute
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow with purplish veins, 12–16 mm long, lobed above with rounded, ± equal lobes
    Stamens
    Stamens unequal; filaments glabrous; anthers shortly apiculate
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid, 5–6 mm long, ± 3 mm in diameter, glabrous.
    Ecology
    Wet and upland grassland; 1200–2900 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); common and widespread
    Distribution
    Range: Ethiopia, Somalia, Zambia, Malawi, Zimbabwe Flora districts: U1 U3 U4 K2 K3 K4 K5 T2 T3 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Erect annual (10)20–55 cm. tall; stems erect, branched, scabrid.
    Leaves
    Leaves subopposite or alternate, 10–25 x 2.5–6 mm., lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or narrowly ovate, sessile, roughly hispid-scabrid on both surfaces with hairs having large white tubercles at base, irregularly dentate, subprominently 3-nerved.
    Flowers
    Flowers almost sessile in subcompact spikes at ends of branches, individual flowers in axils of leaf-like bracts.
    Bracts
    Bracts longer than flowers, lanceolate, usually 1–3-toothed.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles up to 6 mm. long, linear or lanceolate, almost equalling calyx.
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–8 mm. long, subprominently 10-nerved, hispid especially on nerves; lobes 3.5–6 mm. long, deltoid, densely hispid-scabrid.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow to orange-yellow with purplish striations.
    Stamens
    Filaments all glabrous; anther thecae shortly apiculate.
    Fruits
    Capsule 3–3.5 mm. long, 3–3.5 mm. in diam., globose.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Alectra sessiliflora (Vahl) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2013 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Malawi K000405361
    Jul 1, 2013 Galpin, E.E. [929], South Africa K000405348
    Jul 1, 2013 Schimper [1229], Ethiopia K000405212 syntype
    Jul 1, 2013 Schimper [1094], Ethiopia K000405214
    Jul 1, 2013 Schimper [1094], Ethiopia K000405215
    Jul 1, 2013 Schimper [1094], Ethiopia K000405216
    Jul 1, 2013 Kassner [2827], Congo, DRC K000405219 Unknown type material
    Jul 1, 2013 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Liberia K000405224
    Jul 1, 2013 Buchanan, J. [520], Malawi K000405359 lectotype
    Jul 1, 2013 Brown, E. [191], Uganda K000405206
    Jul 1, 2013 Heudelot [787], Guinea K000405225 syntype
    Jul 1, 2013 Wallich, N. [3963], Myanmar K000899624
    Jul 1, 2013 Overlaet, H.G.H. [s.n.], Congo K000405223 paratype
    Jul 1, 2013 Bachmannia, J. [151], Malawi K000405358
    Mar 1, 2013 Edgewoth, M.P. [52], India K000899625
    Jan 1, 1989 Thomas, D.W. [4231], Cameroon K000028852
    Jan 1, 1960 Maitland, T.D. [802], Cameroon K000028860
    Jan 1, 1960 Maitland, T.D. [1181], Cameroon K000028859
    Jan 1, 1960 Mann, G. [1262], Cameroon K000028862
    Jan 1, 1960 Mann, G. [1985], Cameroon K000028863
    Jan 1, 1960 Brenan, J.P.M. [9345], Cameroon K000028855
    Jan 1, 1960 Migeod, F. W. H. [56], Cameroon K000028870
    Jan 1, 1960 Migeod, F. W. H. [115], Cameroon K000028871
    Jan 1, 1960 Ngongi [15087], Cameroon K000028869
    South Africa K000405345
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9551], Tanzania 24491.000
    Gossweiler, J. [9823], Angola K001009030
    Boughey, A.S. [10548], Cameroon K000028872
    Boughey, A.S. [10548], Cameroon K000028873
    Welwitsch [5802], Angola K001009031
    Welwitsch [5801], Angola K001009032
    Sutherland [s.n.], South Africa K000405339
    Baum, H. [738], Angola K001009033
    Baum, H. [424], Angola K001009034
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K000405208
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K000405207
    Gerrard, W.T. [291], South Africa K000405338
    Krauss [168], South Africa K000405340
    Krauss [168], South Africa K000405347
    Drège [130a], South Africa K000405343
    Drège [130d], South Africa K000405342
    Ecklon [s.n.], South Africa K000405346
    Cooper, T. [2900], South Africa K000405341
    Rehamann, A. [6617], South Africa K000405344
    Harris, T. [245], Mozambique K000613320
    Jan 1, 2004 Ghogue, J.-P. [1110], Cameroon Alectra sessiliflora var. monticola K000212988
    Dec 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9471], Cameroon Alectra sessiliflora var. monticola K000198189
    Nov 1, 1986 Thomson [s.n.], South Africa Alectra sessiliflora var. monticola K000405360
    Jan 1, 1980 Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [8585], Cameroon Alectra sessiliflora var. monticola K000028867
    Sanford, W.W. [5444], Cameroon Alectra sessiliflora var. monticola K000198190
    Brunt, M.A. [889], Cameroon Alectra sessiliflora var. monticola K000028868
    Milne-Redhead, E. [8254], Tanzania Alectra asperrima 24451.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9784], Tanzania Alectra asperrima 24496.000
    Chandler, P. [77], Uganda Alectra asperrima 16346.000
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3963], Myanmar Hymenospermum dentatum K001117737
    Thomson, T. [s.n.], India Alectra thomsonii K000999872
    Thomson, T. [s.n.], India Alectra thomsonii K000999873
    Gossweller, J. [378], South Africa Alectra trinervis K000405362 Unknown type material
    Drummond, R.B. [2704], Tanzania Alectra communis 11201.000
    Watermeyer, A.M. [65], Tanzania Alectra communis 2538.000
    Watermeyer, A.M. [90], Tanzania Alectra communis 2539.000
    Faulkner, H. [1260], Tanzania Alectra communis 17711.000
    Chancellor, R.J. [139], Uganda Alectra senegalensis 2540.000

    First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 458 (1891)

    Accepted by

    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Kliment, J., Turis, P. & Janišová, M. (2016). Taxa of vascular plants endemic to the Carpathian Mts Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 88: 19-76.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Morawetz, J.J. & Wolfe, A.D. (2011). Taxonomic revision of the Alectra sessiliflora complex (Orobanchaceae) Systematic Botany 36: 141-152.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1995). World Checklist of Seed Plants 1(1, 2): 1-483, 529. MIM, Deurne.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Hepper in Kew Bull. 14: 404 (1960).
    • Melchior in Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 15: 437 (1941)
    • Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 458 (1891)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Morawetz, J.J. & Wolfe, A.D. (2011). Taxonomic revision of the Alectra sessiliflora complex (Orobanchaceae) Systematic Botany 36: 141-152.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 5: 286 (2006).
    • U.K.W.F.: 258, pl. 111 (1994)
    • F.Z.: 8(2): 86 (1990)
    • K.B. 14: 405 (1960)
    • Rev. Gen. Pl. 2: 458 (1891)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/