According to Flora Zambesiaca[FZ]
Apocynaceae, A. J. M. Leeuwenberg and F. K. Kupicha et al.. Flora Zambesiaca 7:2. 1985
- Shrub or small tree 1·5–8(12) m. high; young shoots glabrous or brown appressed-pubescent and soon glabrescent; bark of twigs grey, rough with lenticels.
- Leaves glabrous or petiole and proximal part of lower lamina surface brown appressed-pubescent and soon glabrescent; petiole 4–8 mm. long; leaves drying discolorous, with upper surface blackish green or dark brown and lower surface paler, grey or brown.
- Leaf lamina
- Leaf lamina 5–16·5 x 1·7–6 cm., obovate-oblong, oblong or elliptic, the apex cuspidate or acuminate to a round-tipped acumen, the base tapered; main lateral veins 7–13-paired, looping into a continuous marginal vein, level and inconspicuous on upper surface, slightly raised and quite conspicuous on lower surface; tertiary reticulum not scalariform; midrib impressed above, prominent below.
- Inflorescences few- or several-flowered cymes or fascicles, these terminal but often appearing lateral by the overtopping growth of axillary shoots; pedicels 2–7 mm. long, glabrous or pubescent; flowers white with yellow tube, the corolla leathery in texture.
- Calyx 2·5–4 mm. long, lobes ovate-acute, thinly appressed-pilose on both surfaces, ciliate; a ring of numerous tiny scales present, adnate to the base of the calyx on its adaxial side.
- Corolla lobes ovate-acute to ovate-caudate, 5–10 mm. long, densely hairy on both surfaces and on the margin, the indumentum consisting of turgid cells longest towards the mouth of the corolla tube; corolla tube 8–12 mm. long, of 2 ± equal parts separated by a constriction and with a very small apical opening; outer surface glabrous or pubescent especially in the upper half, inner surface variably pilose in the upper half, especially behind the anthers, ± glabrous below the constriction.
- Stamens sessile, fixed by their lower abaxial surface to the corolla tube just above the median constriction; anthers sagittate, c. 3·5 mm. long; pollen sacs confined to the upper half of the anther, the lower half consisting of two stiff sterile tails flanking a median brush-like retinacle which is firmly adnate to the clavuncle of the gynoecium.
- Disc bearing 4–5 stout oblong scales c. 1·6 mm. high.
- Ovary of two completely separate compressed-ovoid carpels c. 1 mm. high, pubescent at the apex.
- Style densely pilose, widened at apex at level of corolla tube constriction into the clavuncle, then narrowed again into the cylindrical, glabrous, apparently undivided stigma.
- Fruit of two straight divaricate follicles 5–17·5 cm. long, with rough grey surface.
- Seeds ¥, 11–15 mm. long, linear, compressed, with apical coma of golden-brown hairs 16–27 mm. long.
According to Flora of West Tropical Africa[FWTA]
Apocynaceae, H. Huber. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963
- A large shrub or small tree
- Creamy-white flowers in axillary and terminal, several to many-flowered fascicles.
According to Flora of Tropical East Africa[FTEA]
Apocynaceae, E.A. Omino. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2002
- Tree or shrub 1.5–15(–20) m high, with white latex in all parts; trunk 3–40 cm in diameter; bark smooth or rough, often peeling off in large scales; branchlets glabrous.
- Leaves petiolate; blade elliptic or obovate, 4–18 cm long, 2–6.5 cm wide, acuminate to retuse at the apex, cuneate at the base, revolute, glabrous; petiole 1–8 mm long, glabrous.
- Inflorescence fasciculate, 2–4 cm long, 2–6 cm wide, 1–15-flowered; peduncle 2–5 mm long, glabrous; pedicels 7–12 mm long, glabrous to puberulous.
- Flowers with sepals ovate or triangular, 1.5–5.5 mm long, 1.5–4 mm wide, with a row of 7–10 colleters within; corolla white with yellow streak inside, pubescent inside on lobes, up to insertion of stamens; tube 5–14 mm long, widest above the base and around the stamens; lobes ovate, 4–15 mm long, 2–14 mm wide, apiculate, acuminate or acute, densely hairy; stamens with apex 0.2–1.8 mm below the mouth of the corolla tube, inserted 5–8 mm from the base; disk (1) 2–3 mm, usually higher than the ovary; ovary cylindrical, pubescent at the apex, rarely entirely glabrous; ovules 30–60 in each carpel; style pubescent; pistil head almost conical.
- Follicles dark brown, 6–17.5 cm long, 0.6–2 cm wide; seed 10–14 mm long, dark brown; coma 10–20 mm long.
- Fig. 30 (p. 90).
According to Kew Species Profiles[KSP]
Kew Species Profiles
- General Description
An attractive ornamental, Mascarenhasia arborescens was an important source of natural rubber in Madagascar in the early 1900s.
Mascarenhasia arborescens has beautiful, delicate flowers with an exquisite scent. Its attractive habit and dark red petioles and midribs add to its horticultural merit.
The generic name is taken from the French ‘ Mascareignes’ referring to a group of islands in the Indian Ocean to the east of Madagascar. The specific epithet arborescens refers to its tree-like habit. The genus Mascarenhasia contains eight species of shrubs and small trees, all of which can be found in Madagascar.
- Species Profile
Geography and distribution
Native to East Africa, Madagascar, the Comoros and the Seychelles.
Overview:A shrub or small tree commonly up to 15 m tall (rarely up to 35 m), with smooth brownish bark. The branchlets are rough and grey with lenticels (openings in the bark allowing gas exchange), and contain a milky latex.
Leaves: The leaves are simple (not divided into leaflets) and are held opposite each other on the stem. The leaves are glossy light green, leathery, 5-16.5 x 2-6 cm, and have a midrib which is indented above but prominent below.
Flowers: The flowers are white with a yellow tube, and up to 10 mm in diameter. They are bisexual and are borne in small axillary or terminal clusters, termed cymes. The flowers have five calyx lobes with a ring of tiny scales at the base. The corolla tube is cylindrical and bears short hairs on the outside, at least above, and is densely hairy in the throat. The five petals are densely hairy, and overlapping. Five stamens are attached in the swollen upper portion of the tube, and just protrude from it.
Fruits:The fruit resembles a miniature propeller, has two opposing ovaries, and is 5-17.5 cm long with a rough grey surface. The fruits split to produce many seeds, each with a tuft of golden hairs.
Mascarenhasia arborescens was cultivated for the production of rubber in Madagascar in the early 1900s, when it was one of the country’s major sources of natural rubber. Interest in this species was revived briefly during World War II, as a source of rubber for the production of car tyres. It is not widely cultivated elsewhere.
The latex from M . arborescensis mixed with that of Chrysophyllum boivinianumto make a sticky trap to catch the Madagascar red fody ( Foudia madagascariensis), a small bird which is a pest of maturing rice crops.
M. arborescensis used in traditional medicine in Madagascar to treat intestinal disorders, spasms and diarrhoea. A recent scientific study supports the antispasmodic and antioxidant efficacy of this species.
Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage
Kew's Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life world wide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.
Description of seeds:Average 1,000 seed weight = 4.66 gNumber of seed collections stored in the Millennium Seed Bank:Two
Mascarenhasia arborescenscan be propagated from seed or by taking cuttings, and can form an attractive shrub with some formative pruning. Research is currently being carried out at Kew into the best way of taking and growing-on cuttings.
Where to see this species at Kew
Mascarenhasia arborescensis grown in the Palm House and behind-the-scenes in the Tropical Nursery at Kew.
Dried and spirit-preserved specimens of M. arborescensare held in the behind-the-scenes Herbarium at Kew, where they are made available to researchers from around the world, by appointment. The details, including images, of some of these specimens can be seen online in the Herbarium Catalogue.
View details and images of specimens
Specimens of the wood and roots of M. arborescensare held in the Economic Botany Collection, where they are made available to bona fide researchers by appointment.
- Evergreen forest and on riverine fringes; in moist areas, particularly along stream banks.
- Not yet rated according to IUCN Red List criteria, but given its broad geographic distribution it is unlikely to be threatened globally.
Mascarenhasia arborescens A.DC. appears in other Kew resources:
Herbarium Catalogue (14 records)
|Date Identified||Reference||Herbarium Specimen||Type Status|
|Jan 1, 2007||Bardot-Vaucoulon, M. , Madagascar||K000197166|
|Jan 1, 2007||Razafimandimbison, S. G. , Madagascar||K000197167|
|Jan 1, 2007||Razafimandimbison, S. G. , Madagascar||K000197168|
|Jan 1, 1994||Capuron, R. , Madagascar||K000233973||isotype|
|Jan 1, 1994||Baron, R. , Madagascar||K000233974||holotype|
|Jan 1, 1994||Baron, R. , Madagascar||K000233975||holotype|
|Jan 1, 1994||Whyte, A. , Malawi||K000233976||Unknown type material|
|Jan 1, 1994||K000233977||isotype|
|Jan 1, 1994||K000233978||Unknown type material|
|Jan 1, 1984||Keay, R.W.J. , Cameroon||K000028238|
|Jan 1, 1984||Keay, R.W.J. , Cameroon||K000028239|
|Jan 1, 1979||Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. , Cameroon||K000028240|
|Milne-Redhead, E. , Tanzania||31186.000|
|Timberlake, J. , Mozambique||K000614369|
First published in Prodr. 8: 488 (1844)
-  (2006) Scripta Botanica Belgica 34: 1-199
-  Govaerts, R. (2003) World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS . The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
-  Desire, O. et al. (2010). Antispasmodic and antioxidant activities of fractions and bioactive constituent davidigenin isolated from Mascarenhasia arborescens. J. Ethnopharmacol. 130(2): 320-328.
-  Madagascar Catalogue (2010). Mascarenhasia.
-  Mabberley, D.J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
-  Heywood, V.H., Brummitt, R.K., Culham, A. & Seberg, O. (2007). Flowering Plant Families of the World. Firefly Books, Ontario.
-  Palgrave, M.C. (2002). Trees of Southern Africa (Third Edition). Struik Publishers, South Africa.
-  Hickey, M. & King, C. (2000). The Cambridge Illustrated Glossary of Botanical Terms. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
-  Huxley, A. (ed.) (1999). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening, Volume 3 (L-Q). Royal Horticultural Society, London.
-  Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. (1997). Series of revisions of Apocynaceae XLIV, Craspidospermum Boj. ex A.DC., Gonioma E.Mey., Mascarenhasia A.DC., Petchia Livera, Plectaneia Thou., and Stephanostegia Baill. Wageningen Agricultural University Papers 97-2: 1-124.
-  Brickell, C. (ed.) (1996). The Royal Horticultural Society Encyclopedia of Garden Plants, Volume 2 (K-Z). Dorling Kingsley Ltd, London.
-  Turk, D. (1995). A Guide to Trees of Ranomafana National Park and Central Eastern Madagascar. Tsimbazaza Botanical and Zoological Garden, Missouri Botanic Garden, St. Louis.
-  Pichon in Mém. Inst. Sci. Madag., sér. B, 2: 81 (1949).
-  in DC. Prod. 8: 488 (1844)
Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
International Plant Names Index
The International Plant Names Index (2016). Published on the Internet http://www.ipni.org
[D] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0
Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families
World Checklist of Selected Plant Families(2016). Published on the Internet http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
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[H] © Copyright 2016 International Plant Names Index and World Checkist of Selected Plant Families. https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0