1. Family: Plantaginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Limnophila R.Br.
      1. Limnophila ceratophylloides (Hiern) Skan

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Cameroon to S. Tanzania and Namibia.

    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Amphibious perennial.
    Stem
    Stems: aerial stems to 20 cm. tall, simple or branching, glabrous to laxly white hirsute or covered lightly with small sessile yellow glands; submerged stems to 60 cm. long, simple or branching, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves on aerial stems verticillate to opposite, irregularly pinnatisect to lacerate, 5–8 x 1–2 mm., densely punctate, glabrous, hirsute or yellow-glandular; submerged leaves to 2.5 cm. long, pinnatisect-multifid, segments capillary or more usually flattened, glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary axillary, sessile, cleistogamous flowers present on submerged stems. Cleistogamous flowers: bracteoles 2.5–4 mm. long, narrowly linear, glabrous; calyx 3–3.5 mm. long, glabrous; corolla 3.5–4 mm. long, villous within tube; stamens generally two, filaments c. 0.75–1 mm. long; style c. 1.5 mm. long; capsule 2.5 mm. long, dark brown to light brown, opaque, broadly ovoid. Chasmogamous flowers: bracteoles 1.5–4 mm. long, narrowly linear, glabrous to very shortly hirsute; calyx 3–5 mm. long, glabrous or hirsute, yellow-glandular; corolla 6–10 mm. long, mauve to lilac with darker throat, externally glabrous, densely villous within tube mainly on the posticous side; stamens four with contiguous anthers at anthesis, filaments 0.75–3 mm. long, anthers attached by one pole to largely inflated connective, thecae divergent; stigma unequally bilobed with one lobe somewhat extended, narrowly deltoid, perpendicular to style, style 1–4 mm. long; capsule 2.5–3.5 mm. long, dark brown, emarginate, broadly ovoid.
    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: Angola, Huilla, between Lopollo and Humpata, Welwitsch 5778 (BM!, holo.; ?COI, K!, iso.)
    Habit
    Aquatic perennial; aerial stems up to 20 cm tall, simple or branching, glabrous to laxly white hirsute or lightly covered with small, sessile, yellow glands; submerged stems up to 60 cm long, simple or branching, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves on aerial stems verticillate to opposite, irregularly pinnatisect to lacerate, or somewhat deeply divided, 5–8 mm long, 1–2 mm wide, densely punctate, glabrous, hirsute or yellow glandular; submerged leaves verticillate, pinnatisect-multifid, up to 2.5 cm long, segments capillary or, more usually, flattened, glabrous
    Flowers
    Cleistogamous flowers: bracteoles 2.5–4 mm long, narrowly linear, glabrous; calyx 3–3.5 mm long, glabrous; corolla 3.5–4 mm long, villous within the tube; stamens generally 2, filaments 0.5–1 mm long; style ± 1.5 mm long Chasmogamous flowers: bracteoles 2, 1.5–4 mm long, narrowly linear, glabrous to very shortly hirsute; calyx 3–5 mm long, glabrous or hirsute, yellow-glandular; corolla 6–10 mm long, mauve to lilac with darker throat, externally glabrous, densely vinous within the tube mainly on the posterior side; stamens 4 with contiguous anthers at anthesis, filaments 0.5–3 mm long,  anthers attached at one end to largely inflated connective, thecae divergent; stigma unequally bilobed with one lobe somewhat extended, narrowly deltoid and appearing hooked, perpendicular to the style; style 1–4 mm long Cleistogamous flowers present on submerged stems Flowers solitary-axillary, sessile
    Fruits
    Capsule broadly ovoid, ± 2.5 mm long, dark- to light brown, opaque.
    Ecology
    Submerged in shallow, fresh or stagnant, standing or slow to running water, or terrestrial on margins of rivers or lakes, or receding floodplains (similar to L. indica); ± 1100 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC), but known from a single gathering in Tanzania
    Distribution
    Flora districts: T8 Range: Cameroon, Congo-Brazaville, Congo-Kinshasa, Angola, Burundi, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Botswana and Namibia
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Congo, Namibia, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Limnophila ceratophylloides (Hiern) Skan appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1975 Baum, H. [750], Angola K000379569 isotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Welwitsch [5778], Angola K000379572 Unknown type material
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10837], Tanzania 23755.000
    Wild, H. [37185], Zimbabwe 11226.000
    Hepper, F.N. [3823], Mali K000483382
    Gossweiler, J. [3043], Angola K001008364
    Gossweiler, J. [3858], Angola K001008365
    Welwitsch [5776], Angola K001008366
    Welwitsch [5777], Angola K001008367

    First published in D.Oliver & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Trop. Afr. 4(2): 317 (1906)

    Accepted by

    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fischer, F.A.C. Scrophulariaceae: 55, pl. 19 (1999).
    • Adansonia ser. 2, 15: 234, t. 1,2,5 (1975)
    • K.B. 24(1): 122 (1970) pro parte
    • Peter, Wasserpfl. Deutsch Ostafr.: 127 (1928)
    • F.T.A. 4(2): 317 (1906)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0