1. Family: Plantaginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Limnophila R.Br.
      1. Limnophila indica (L.) Druce

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Amphibious perennial herb.
    Stem
    Stems: aerial part 2.5–14 cm. tall, simple to much branched, slender, with sessile or stipitate glands above becoming sub-glabrous; submerged stem up to 1 m. long, much branched, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves on aerial stem usually all verticillate and variously dissected, (2.5)4–12(22) mm. long, sometimes 2–3 pairs of opposite, undissected, crenate-serrate to lacerate, 1–3 nerved leaves towards apex, up to 15 x 4 mm., sessile-glandular to sub-glandular, rarely all aerial leaves undissected; submerged leaves up to 30 mm. long, verticillate in whorls of 6–12, pinnatisect with lobes flattened or capillary.
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, slender pedicellate.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels (1)3.5–10(15) mm. long, sessile glandular to stipitate glandular, usually, though not always, longer than subtending leaves.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles 2, (1.5)3–4 mm. long, linear to linear-oblong to obovate-lanceolate, acute, entire to irregularly remotely serrate-dentate to occasionally deeply incised, glandular to subglabrous.
    Calyx
    Calyx 3.5–6 mm. long, sessile glandular, rarely sparsely hirsute, not striate at maturity; lobes 2–3 mm. long, broadly ovate to lanceolate, shortly acuminate, occasionally ciliate.
    Corolla
    Corolla (6)8–12 mm. long, white to pale yellow, or yellow at base of tube, mauve-pink above, glabrous without; lobes all entire.
    Stamens
    Stamens with anthers contiguous; posterior filaments 2 mm. long, anterior 4 mm. long, all glabrous.
    Style
    Style up to 4.5 mm. long with two lateral processes about 0.2 mm. wide at apex and below stigma.
    Fruits
    Capsule about 3.5 mm. long, compressed ellipsoid to sub-globose, dark brown.
    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Lectotype: Herb. Linn. No. 204.2 (LINN) designated by Philcox in K.B. (1970)
    Habit
    Aquatic perennial herb; aerial stem 2.5–14 cm tall, simple to much-branched, slender with sessile or stipitate glands above becoming subglabrous; submerged stem up to 1 m long, much branched, glabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves on aerial stem usually all verticillate and variously dissected, (2.5–)4–12(–22) mm long, sometimes 2–3 pairs of opposite, undissected, crenate-serrate to lacerate, 1–3-veined leaves towards the apex, up to 15 mm long, 4 mm wide, sessile-glandular to sub-glabrous, rarely all aerial leaves undissected; submerged leaves verticillate in whorls of 6–12, pinnatisect, up to 3 cm long with lobes flattened or capillary
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary, axillary, slender pedicellate or very short-pedicellate, appearing sessile; pedicels (0.5–)3.5–10(–15) mm long, sessile-glandular to stipitate-glandular, usually longer than the subtending leaves; bracteoles 2, (1.5–)3–4 mm long, linear to linear-oblong to obovate-lanceolate, acute, entire to irregularly and remotely serrate-dentate to occasionally deeply incised, glandular to subglabrous
    Calyx
    Calyx 3.5–6 mm long, sessile-glandular, rarely sparsely hirsute, not striate at maturity; lobes 2–3 mm long, broadly ovate to lanceolate, shortly acuminate, occasionally ciliate
    Corolla
    Corolla white to pale yellow or yellow at base of tube, mauve-pink above, (6–)8–12 mm long, externally glabrous; lobes all entire
    Stamens
    Stamens with anthers contiguous; posterior filaments 2 mm long, anterior 4 mm long, all glabrous; style up to 4.5 mm long with two lateral processes ± 0.2 mm wide at the apex and below the stigma
    Fruits
    Capsule compressed ellipsoid to subglobose, ± 3.4 mm long, dark brown
    Figures
    Fig 16, p 43
    Ecology
    Submerged in shallow, fresh or stagnant, standing or slow-running water, or terrestrial on margins of rivers or lakes, or receding floodplains; 0–1250 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); widespread
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U3 U4 T3 T4 T5 T6 T 8ZP Range: Senegal, Mali, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Sudan, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe and South Africa, throughout the Old World tropics
    [FWTA]

    Scrophulariaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Slender glabrous or slightly glandular-pubescent herb, branched or simple, a few inches to 2 ft. long
    Flowers
    Flowers small, white
    Ecology
    In mud or submerged sometimes in masses.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Northern Provinces

    Native to:

    Angola, Bangladesh, Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Gabon, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Korea, Laos, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Senegal, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Florida, Louisiana

    Limnophila indica (L.) Druce appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1967 Barter [1709], Nigeria K000379575 holotype
    Jan 1, 1967 Mueller, F. [s.n.], Australia K000979465
    Jan 1, 1967 Brown, R. [2652], Australia K000979466 isotype
    Jan 1, 1967 s.coll. [s.n.], Australia K000979464
    Jan 1, 1967 Wailly, M. de [5355], Mali K000483386
    Jan 1, 1967 McRae, C. [199], Spain K000662337
    Jan 1, 1966 Chevalier, A. [155], Mali K000483384
    Jan 1, 1966 Strachey, R. [2], India K000979410 syntype
    Jan 1, 1966 Stocks, J.E. [s.n.], Pakistan K000979412 syntype
    Jan 1, 1966 Stocks, J.E. [s.n.], Pakistan K000979413 syntype
    Jan 1, 1966 Brown, R. [454], Mali K000483383
    Jan 1, 1966 Wallich, N. [3903], India K000979418 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1966 Wallich, N. [3903], India K000979417 holotype
    Jan 1, 1966 Clarke, C.B. [24695], Himachal Pradesh K000979416 syntype
    Jan 1, 1966 Madden, E. [s.n.], India K000979411
    Jan 1, 1966 Davey, J.T. [137], Mali K000483385
    Sudan 11224.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3046], Tanzania 11225.000
    Faulkner, H.G. [A321], Angola K001008362
    Bidgood, S. [6111], Tanzania K000468314
    Clarke, C.B. [24668], Himachal Pradesh K000979415 syntype
    Clarke, C.B. [24669], Himachal Pradesh K000979414 syntype
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 3903], India Limnophila elongata K001117570 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3903] Limnophila elongata K001117569 Unknown type material

    First published in Rep. Bot. Exch. Club Soc. Brit. Isles 3: 420 (1913 publ. 1914)

    Accepted by

    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019). Flora of North America North of Mexico 17: 1-737. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Kamilya, P. (2008). Survey of weed flora of Atrai river bed in Dakshin-Dinajpur in District of West Bengal, India Pleione 2: 77-86.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Z.Wu & P.H.Raven (eds.) (1998). Flora of China 18: 1-449. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Fischer, M.A., Grau, J., Huber-Morath, A., Rechinger, K.H., Wendelbo, P. & Yeo, P.F. (1981). Flora Iranica 147: 1-298. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Rep. Bot. Exch. Cl. Brit. Isles 3: 420 (1914).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2019). Flora of North America North of Mexico 17: 1-737. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (eds.) (2016). Flore du Gabon 48: 1-158. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lê, T.C. (2005). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 3: 1-1248. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Fischer, E. (1999). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Scrophulariaceae: 1-217. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Z.Wu & P.H.Raven (eds.) (1998). Flora of China 18: 1-449. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • T. Smitinand & K. Larsen, eds. (1987). Flora of Thailand 5: 1-470. The Forest Herbarium, Royal Forest Department.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Fischer, M.A., Grau, J., Huber-Morath, A., Rechinger, K.H., Wendelbo, P. & Yeo, P.F. (1981). Flora Iranica 147: 1-298. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1981). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 3: 1-499. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 5: 260  (2006).
    • Fischer, F.A.C. Scrophulariaceae: 50, pl. 17 (1999)
    • Koenders, Fl. Pemba 1: 47(1992)
    • F.Z.: (8) 2: 44 (1990)
    • Opera Bot. 59: 77 (1980)
    • K.B. 24: 115 (1970)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 357 (1963)
    • F.P.S. 3: 138 (1956)
    • Rep. Bot. Excl. Club Brit. Isles 1913, 3: 420 (1914)

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0