1. Family: Orobanchaceae Vent.
    1. Genus: Striga Lour.
      1. Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke

        This species is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa and Asia-Temperate..

    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Tufted, greenish-yellow, succulent herb, usually branching from base, 11–25(35) cm. tall.
    Haustorium
    Single large primary haustorium c. 1–2 cm. in diam. usually present on each plant; adventitious roots abundant from subterranean scales.
    Stem
    Stems square but only obtusely angled.
    Leaves
    Leaves scale-like, appressed to stem, 5–10 x 2–3 mm. Leaves and stems minutely puberulent with upward pointing hairs to almost glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers opposite or alternate, usually 2, rarely 3 per node, not fragrant.
    Bracts
    Bracts usually same length and width as calyx, acuminate.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteoles minute, three quarters the length of calyx.
    Calyx
    Calyx 4–6 mm. long (including teeth), 2 mm. wide.
    Corolla
    Corolla 1.2–1.5 cm. long, light blue or dark purple; bend in tube just below limb. Upper lobes 2–2.5 mm. long, sharply recurved, lower 3–3.2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsules 1–2 x 3 mm.
    Pollen
    Pollen mass usually persistent on stigma.
    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: India, Koenig s.n. (B-W 11573, holo., photo!)
    Habit
    Tufted, greenish-yellow or reddish-purple, succulent annual or perennial, usually branching from the base, 11–25(–35) cm high, drying black; a single large primary haustorium ± 1–3 cm diameter is usually present on each plant when parasitizing.
    Roots
    Adventitious roots abundant from subterranean scales.
    Stem
    Stems quadrangular with obtuse angles, minutely puberulous
    Leaves
    Leaves scale-like, appressed to the stem, 5–10 mm long, 2–3 mm wide; minutely puberulent with upward pointing hairs to almost glabrous
    Flowers
    Flowers opposite or alternate, usually 2(–3) per node; bracts usually the same length and width as calyx, acuminate; bracteoles minute, 3/4 length of calyx
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-ribbed, 4–8 mm long (including the teeth), 2 mm wide; teeth linear, acuminate, shorter than the calyx-tube
    Corolla
    Corolla light blue, pink or dark purple, 1.2–1.5 cm long; tube 7–11 mm, bent just below limb, glandular, and pubescent with small hairs, sometimes papillae-like; upper lobes 2–2.5 mm long, sharply recurved, lower 3–3.2 mm long
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong, 1–2 cm long, 3 mm wide
    Figures
    Fig 38: 3, p 145
    Ecology
    In permanent grassland parasitising grass roots (see note), and in cultivated ground; reported on many species including trees; on Euphorbia, Indigofera, Tephrosia, Stylosanthes, Merremia, Sorghum and wild grasses; 0–1700 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); common and widespread
    Note
    Mohammed et al. (op. cit.) incorrectly state that this species is parasitic only on dicotyledons.
    Distribution
    Range: Tropical and South Africa, tropical Arabia, India, Sri Lanka Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8
    [FWTA]

    Scrophulariaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Stiff erect perennial herb with usually rather stout stems a few inches to 1 ft. or more high
    Flowers
    Flowers pink or purple or creamy white
    Ecology
    In waste places and cultivated land
    Note
    Drying black.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Gambia, Ghana, India, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Recorded in error in:

    Morocco

    Common Names

    English
    Purple witchweed, Tobacco witchweed

    Striga gesnerioides (Willd.) Vatke appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [128], Namibia K000450281
    Oct 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [52], Namibia K000450282
    Jul 30, 1971 Ash [1089], Ethiopia 35814.000
    Jan 1, 1970 Ash [557], Ethiopia 73509.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [10018], Tanzania 24390.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [9524], Tanzania 27223.000
    Drummond, R.B. [3319], Tanzania 11240.000
    Faulkner, H. [825], Tanzania 16356.000
    Polhill, R. [950], Kenya 23741.000
    Gossweiler, J. [329], Angola K001009127
    Gossweiler, J. [647], Angola K001009128
    Gossweiler, J. [9200], Angola K001009133
    Gossweiler, J. [3590], Angola K001009136
    Robertson, S.A. [7521], Kenya K000449625
    Collenette, I.S. [6422], Saudi Arabia 51538.000
    Smith, A.R. [724A], Yemen 30678.000
    Schimper [1340], Ethiopia K000379788
    Bidgood, S. [6005], Tanzania K000468420
    Welwitsch [5916], Angola K000379786
    Welwitsch [5848], Angola K001009131
    Kotschy [387], Sudan K000379784
    Kotschy [387], Sudan K000379787
    Pearson, H.H.W. [2421], Angola K001009134
    Pearson, H.H.W. [2038], Angola K001009135
    Baum, H. [665], Angola K001009129
    Schinz, H. [19], Namibia K000379785
    Scott, L. [s.n.], Malawi K001009132
    Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001009130
    Parker, C. [1989], Mali K000483400
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22063], Mali K000483396
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22565], Mali K000483397
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22244], Mali K000483398
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22211], Mali K000483399
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22603], Burkina Faso K000483403
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22613], Burkina Faso K000483404
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22636], Burkina Faso K000483405
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [3280], Mali K000483401
    Davey, J.T. [49], Mali K000483402
    Royle, J.F. [Cat. no. 3871], India Buchnera hydrabadensis K001117491
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3871] Buchnera hydrabadensis K001117489
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 3871] Buchnera hydrabadensis K001117490
    Jan 1, 1922 Lobb, T. [s.n.], Tamil Nadu Striga orobanchoides K000899628
    South Africa Striga orobanchoides K000379768
    Barnes, E. [630], India Striga orobanchoides 16357.000
    Barnes, E. [807], India Striga orobanchoides 17743.000
    Forbes [s.n.], South Africa Striga orobanchoides K000379769
    Wood, J.M. [1248], South Africa Striga orobanchoides K000379767
    Burke [s.n.], South Africa Striga orobanchoides K000379764
    Burke [s.n.], South Africa Striga orobanchoides K000379763
    Gerrard, W.T. [1825], South Africa Striga orobanchoides K000379766
    Drège [s.n.], South Africa Striga orobanchoides K000379765
    Wallich, N. [s.n.] Striga orobanchoides K000999937
    Wallich, N. [s.n.] Striga orobanchoides K000999938
    Royle, J.F. [s.n.] Striga orobanchoides K000999936
    Law, M. [s.n.], Maharashtra Striga orobanchoides K000899629

    First published in Oesterr. Bot. Z. 25: 11 (1875)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Dobignard, A., Jacquemoud, F. & Jordan, D. (1992). Matériaux pour la conaissance floristique du Sahara occidental et l'Anti-Atlas méridional. II. Leguminosae à Compositae Candollea 47: 397-481.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Oest. Bot. Zeitschr. 25: 11 (1875).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 5: 296 (2006).
    • Thulin (ed.), Fl. Somal.: 3: 287 (2006)
    • Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 88: 80 (2001)
    • U.K.W.F.: 261, pl. 113 (1994)
    • K.B. 41: 213, fig. 1B (1986)
    • Proc. Third Symp. Parasitic Pl.: 264 (1984)
    • Symp. Parasitic Weeds: 16, fig. p. 15 (1973)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 373 (1963)
    • F.P.S. 3: 144, fig. 37 (1956)
    • E.J. 30: 405 (1901)
    • Engl., P.O.A. C: 361 (1895)
    • Linnaea 43: 310 (1882)
    • Oesterr. Bot. Zeitschr. 25: 11 (1875)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/