1. Family: Orobanchaceae Vent.
    1. Genus: Striga Lour.
      1. Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Scrophulariaceae, F. N. Hepper. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    An erect semi-parasitic herb about 1 ft. high
    Flowers
    Flowers bright pink
    Ecology
    Usually parasiting Sorghum roots.
    [FTEA]

    Scrophulariaceae, S.A. Ghazanfar, F.N. Hepper & D. Philcox. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2008

    Type
    Type: Egypt, Delile s.n. (MPU, holo.)
    Habit
    Stiffly erect, dark green annual, much branched, 20–50 cm high.
    Stem
    Stems 4-angled with a groove on each face, scabrous
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, linear to linear-lanceolate to lanceolate, 6–9 cm long, 1.1–1.5 cm wide, acute, margins entire, rather thick and leathery, both surfaces scabrous, margins with hispid hairs at regular intervals
    Flowers
    Flowers opposite or subopposite, 8–10 open at same time per inflorescence branch, variable in size; bracts almost as long as the calyx with prominent hispid hairs on the margins, tip curved away from stem; bracteoles half the length of the calyx
    Calyx
    Calyx 5-ribbed, 10–12 mm long, 2.5 mm wide, hispid on the ribs, intercostal portion whitish or pinkish and translucent, glabrous; lobes unequal, acuminate
    Corolla
    Corolla bright pink (rarely white); tube 10–20 mm long, bent just above calyx teeth, outside with very scattered hairs, glandular-pubescent; upper lobe emarginate, erect, lower lobes 10–13 mm long, 8–10 mm wide
    Fruits
    Capsule oblong, 12–15 mm long, 2–2.5 mm wide
    Figures
    Fig 38: 4–6, p 145
    Ecology
    Parasitic on the roots of maize ( Zea), millet ( Pennisetum), durra ( Sorghum), sugar ( Saccharum), finger millet ( Eleusine) and wild grasses; 750–1550 m
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC); common and widespread
    Note
    The size of the corolla varies immensely: it is typically large and decorative but smalllflowered forms have been distinguished under the names S. senegalensis Benth. and S. gracillima Melchior, the latter having a slender inflorescence and the lower lip only 3 mm long. Although Melchior allied the latter species with S. warneckei Skan its affinities seem to lie with S. hermonthica owing to its broad bracts. Mohammed et al., op. cit. state that the corolla tube is never glandular-pubescent in S. hermonthica. I (S.A.G.) have examined many specimens of this taxon from the FTEA region and note the corolla tube to be more or less always glandular-pubescent, a character similar to that in S. apsera. S. hermonthica and S. aspera have been recorded to interbreed and it is possible that the hybrids have glandularpubescent corollas.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K5 T1 Range: Serious pest in Sudan, also across West Africa to Senegal, and parts of eastern Africa, Egypt, also Madagascar
    [FZ]

    Scrophulariaceae, D. Philcox. Flora Zambesiaca 8:2. 1990

    Habit
    Stiffly erect, dark green, much branched herb, 20–50 cm. tall.
    Stem
    Stem quadrangular with groove on each face, scabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves rather thick, 6–9 x 1.1–1.5 cm., both surfaces scabrous, margins with hispid hairs at regular intervals.
    Flowers
    Flowers bright pink (rarely white), opposite or nearly so, 8-l6 open at same rime per inflorescence branch, variable in size, faint sweet fragrance in early morning.
    Bracts
    Bracts almost as long as calyx with prominent hispid hairs on margin, apex curved away from stem.
    Bracteoles
    Bracteole half length of calyx.
    Calyx
    Calyx 10–12 x 2.5 mm., intracostal portion whitish and translucent.
    Corolla
    Corolla tube 1–2 cm. long, bent just above calyx teeth, outside with very scattered hairs; upper lobe emarginate, erect, lower lobes 10–13 x 8–10 mm.
    Fruits
    Capsule 12–15 x 2–2.5 mm.
    [FTEA]
    Use
    None recorded on specimens from our area

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Yemen

    Striga hermonthica (Delile) Benth. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1993 Yeates, M. [8], Mali K000483409
    Apr 1, 1979 Waterlot, E.G. [1451], Mali K000483412
    Jun 19, 1956 Vogel [130], Nigeria K000379793 syntype
    Meikle, R.D. [746], Nigeria 17742.000
    Hepper, F.N. [3759], Mali K000483411
    Hepper, F.N. [3759], Mali K000483413
    Gossweiler, J. [14219], Angola K001009124
    Gossweiler, J. [9199], Angola K001009125
    Bidgood, S. [6125], Tanzania K000468300
    Vogel [130], Nigeria K000379792 syntype
    Heudelot [2839], Senegal K000379794 syntype
    Ansell, J. [s.n.], Nigeria K000379790 syntype
    Ansell, J. [s.n.], Nigeria K000379791
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22200], Mali K000483406
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22194], Mali K000483407
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22526], Mali K000483408
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22573], Mali K000483410
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22221], Mali K000483414
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22208], Mali K000483415
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22210], Mali K000483416
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22263], Burkina Faso K000483417
    Raynal-Roques, A. [22305], Burkina Faso K000483418

    First published in Compan. Bot. Mag. 1: 365 (1836)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2013). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 5: 1-451. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 407.
    • in Hook. Comp. Bot. Mag. 1: 365 (1836)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A., Hepper, F.N. & Philcox, D. (2008). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Scrophulariaceae: 1-211.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Boulos, L. (2002). Flora of Egypt 3: 1-373. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Philcox, D. (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 8(2): 1-179. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Ethiop. & Eritr. 5: 295 (2006).
    • Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 88: 85 (2001)
    • U.K.W.F.: 261 (1994)
    • K.B. 41: 216, fig. 1c (1986)
    • Proc. Third Symp. Parasitic Pl.: 264 (1984)
    • Symp. Parasitic Weeds: 16, fig. p.15 (1973)
    • F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 2: 372, fig. 290 (1963)
    • F.P.U.: 135 (1962)
    • F.P.S. 3: 145, fig. 38 (1956)
    • F.T.A. 4(2): 407 (1906)
    • Engl., P.O.A. C: 361 (1895)
    • T.L.S. 29: 122 (1875)
    • DC., Prodr. 10: 502 (1846)
    • Hook., Comp. Bot. Mag. 1: 365 (1836)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0