Skip to main content
  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum aculeastrum Dunal

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Nigeria to South Sudan and S. Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A tree or shrub up to 20 ft. high
    Indumentum
    White tomentum on all parts, except the surface of the leaves
    Spines
    With mostly very big sharp hook-like spines, but sometimes also unarmed.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Shrub or small tree, 1. 2–4.5 m (elsewhere said to reach 8 m), conspicuously armed [or elsewhere unarmed in var albifolium (C H  Wright) Bitter]; hairs stellate, forming a white or cineraceous powdery-looking tomentum on all parts except upper side of the leaves, sessile or subsessile, echinoid, regular, soft, short or minute; prickles brown becoming reddish-brown upwards, to 20 mm long and 15 mm wide at the base, stout and recurved to rarely acicular, very sharp, stellate-felty at base and subglabrous upwards to quite glabrous
    Stamens
    Stamens (4)5–6(10); filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 4–8 mm long, lanceolate-ellipsoid, obtuse basally Stamens (4)5–6(10); filaments 0.5–1 mm long; anthers 4–8 mm long, lanceolate-ellipsoid, obtuse basally.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1. 5–3(5.5) × 1–3(5) mm, ± globose or ovoid, ± densely hairy, 2-locular.
    Style
    Style 6–8(10) mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, straight, very shortly hairy in the lower half or tomentose to near the apex in male flowers
    Fruits
    Fruit glossy, greenish becoming yellowish when ripe, later reddish, purplish or brown to blackish, 3.5–5 × 3–5 cm, ± globose to ellipsoid, smooth or warty, ± hairy on upper part, poisonous Fruit glossy, greenish becoming yellowish when ripe, later reddish, purplish or brown to blackish, 3.5–5 × 3–5 cm, ± globose to ellipsoid, smooth or warty, ± hairy on upper part, poisonous.
    Seeds
    Seeds dirty-yellowish or brownish, 3–5(6) × 2.5–3.5(6) mm, strongly flattened, oblique-reniform or orbicular to ovate or obovate in outline, minutely reticulate all over Seeds dirty-yellowish or brownish, 3–5(6) × 2.5–3.5(6) mm, strongly flattened, oblique-reniform or orbicular to ovate or obovate in outline, minutely reticulate all over.
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, 1.2–4.5 m (elsewhere said to reach 8 m), conspicuously armed [or elsewhere unarmed in var. albifolium (C.H. Wright) Bitter]; hairs stellate, forming a white or cineraceous powdery-looking tomentum on all parts except upper side of the leaves, sessile or subsessile, echinoid, regular, soft, short or minute; prickles brown becoming reddish-brown upwards, to 20 mm long and 15 mm wide at the base, stout and recurved to rarely acicular, very sharp, stellate-felty at base and subglabrous upwards to quite glabrous.
    Branches
    Branches tomentose, gradually glabrescent, the recurved prickles usually conspicuous. Branches tomentose, gradually glabrescent, the recurved prickles usually conspicuous
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate or ternate; petiole (0.3)1–3 cm long; lamina membranous, 3–20 × 1.5–13.5 cm, ovate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or ± circular, base sub-hastate or truncate, rounded to cuneate, and ± unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or acuminate, irregularly sinuate-lobed to divided, the lobes ± triangular to elongate, entire to sinuate-lobulate, rounded, obtuse or sub-acuminate, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, upper surface ± hairy to glabrous, lower surface very densely greyish-white tomentose, generally with ± straight prickles on the midrib at least beneath. Leaves solitary, the upper ones often appearing geminate or ternate; petiole (0.3)1–3 cm long; lamina membranous, 3–20 × 1. 5–13.5 cm, ovate to elliptic or oblong-lanceolate, sometimes obovate or ± circular, base sub-hastate or truncate, rounded to cuneate, and ± unequal-sided, apex acute to obtuse or acuminate, irregularly sinuate-lobed to divided, the lobes ± triangular to elongate, entire to sinuate-lobulate, rounded, obtuse or sub-acuminate, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, upper surface ± hairy to glabrous, lower surface very densely greyish-white tomentose, generally with ± straight prickles on the midrib at least beneath
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote or occasionally leaf-opposed, at first sometimes appearing terminal, unbranched or occasionally forked, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, tomentose, usually sparingly armed, the prickles ± straight, 2–13-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or very short; pedicels (5)8–15(23) mm long, slender but stouter in fertile flower(s), erect to recurved, leaving raised scars after abscission, in fruit elongated to 5 cm, strongly thickened distally and stout, ± recurved or deflexed. Cymes lateral, usually leaf-remote or occasionally leaf-opposed, at first sometimes appearing terminal, unbranched or occasionally forked, sub-umbelliform or racemiform, tomentose, usually sparingly armed, the prickles ± straight, 2–13-flowered, usually the lowest flower(s) larger and more prickly, sometimes all flowers unarmed, occasionally flowers solitary; peduncle none or very short; pedicels (5)8–15(23) mm long, slender but stouter in fertile flower(s), erect to recurved, leaving raised scars after abscission, in fruit elongated to 5 cm, strongly thickened distally and stout, ± recurved or deflexed
    Calyx
    Calyx (4)5-lobed or divided, greyish-white tomentose, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit somewhat enlarged, very often more deeply divided, somewhat glabrescent, sparsely prickly; tube 2–4 mm long, ± campanulate; lobes 2–8 × 1.5–4 mm, triangular to ovate-elliptic or oblong, acute to long-acuminate, hairy mainly on the midrib to glabrous inside, in fruit rather leathery, to 10 × 5 mm, broadly lanceolate. Calyx (4)5-lobed or divided, greyish-white tomentose, ± prickly or unarmed, in fruit somewhat enlarged, very often more deeply divided, somewhat glabrescent, sparsely prickly; tube 2–4 mm long, ± campanulate; lobes 2–8 × 1. 5–4 mm, triangular to ovate-elliptic or oblong, acute to long-acuminate, hairy mainly on the midrib to glabrous inside, in fruit rather leathery, to 10 × 5 mm, broadly lanceolate
    Corolla
    Corolla violaceous to purple or pale mauve, yellowish or whitish, sometimes with purplish-brown markings, 1.3–3 cm across, ± rotate to stelliform; lobes 4–17 × 1.5–3.5 mm, narrowly ligulate, acute, involute at the margins, tomentose outside and hairy mainly on midrib to subglabrous inside. Corolla violaceous to purple or pale mauve, yellowish or whitish, sometimes with purplish-brown markings, 1. 3–3 cm across, ± rotate to stelliform; lobes 4–17 × 1. 5–3.5 mm, narrowly ligulate, acute, involute at the margins, tomentose outside and hairy mainly on midrib to subglabrous inside
    Pistil
    Ovary 1.5–3(5.5) × 1–3(5) mm, ± globose or ovoid, ± densely hairy, 2-locular; style 6–8(10) mm long, very much shorter in male flowers, straight, very shortly hairy in the lower half or tomentose to near the apex in male flowers.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: South Africa, Cape of Good Hope, near Morleg, Drège s.n. (G-DC, holo.; AD, BM!, K!, P!, possible iso.)
    Habit
    Shrub or tree, 2–6 m, erect, usually armed; young stems densely stellate-pubescent, trichomes porrect and multangulate, white-translucent or yellowish, densely matted, sessile or stalked, stalks up to 2 mm, rays 8–12, 0.1–0.5 mm, midpoints shorter than rays or up to 1 mm; prickles straight becoming curved, 8–17 mm long, 3–10 mm wide at base, flattened, prominent
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying strongly discolorous, red-green to yellow-green above, white-grey underneath, ovate, sometimes elliptic, 8–15 × 6–12 cm, 1.5–2 times longer than wide, base cordate to truncate(auriculate), usually equal, margin lobed, the broadly deltate lobes 2–3 on each side, 1.5–4.5 cm long, often with secondary lobing, apically obtuse (rounded), extending 1/4–3/4 of the distance to the midvein; apex acute; densely stellate-pubescent abaxially, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays 8–12, 0.15–0.8 mm, midpoints same length as rays or up to 1 mm, adaxially glabrescent, the trichomes reduced; primary veins 3–6 pairs; petiole 1.2–3 cm, ± 1/6 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences rarely branched, 3–6 cm long, with 4–12 flowers; peduncle 0–35 mm long; rachis 0.5–2.5 cm long; peduncle and rachis unarmed; pedicels 1–3.5 cm long, in fruit 2.5–4.5 cm long, unarmed or with 1–5 prickles
    Flowers
    Flowers heterostylous, 5-merous, only the basal 1(–2) long-styled
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–15 mm long, lobes long-deltate to broadly deltate, 2–7 mm long, acute to apiculate, usually with 2–10 prickles in long-styled flowers
    Corolla
    Corolla white (mauve), 1.5–3.2 cm in diameter, lobed for 1/2–4/5 of its length, the lobes deltate or long-deltate, 6–15 × 2–5 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; anthers 4.5–6.5 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary stellatepubescent in the upper 1/5; style 7–10 mm long on long-styled flowers
    Fruits
    Berries 1(–3) per infructescence, evenly green when young, yellow at maturity, 3–5 × 2–4.5 cm, apically rounded to apiculate or acute; fruiting calyx usually unarmed
    Seeds
    Seeds 4–5 × 2.7–4 mm
    Figures
    Fig 24, p 199
    Ecology
    Forest margins, grassland, scrub, and disturbed open places; 1200–2500 m
    Note
    Solanum aculeastrum is a widespread and variable species found across the African highlands. It is easy to recognise by its markedly discolorous lobed leaves that are almost white below and by its prominent orange downwardly hooked prickles, although these are sometimes absent. The fruit is frequently compared to lemons: big, almost always single, yellow, round or apiculate or elongated, with a tendency to develop warts. Solanum aculeastrum is a distinctive species unlikely to be misidentified, except for possible confusion with the closely related S. phoxocarpum and S. thomsonii, which differ in fruit characters.
    Distribution
    Range: Nigeria, Cameroon, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Angola, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Swaziland, South Africa Flora districts: U2 U4 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T6 T7

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Gulf of Guinea Is., Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Queensland

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum aculeastrum Dunal appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2010 Liben, L. [2441], Congo K000441453
    Apr 1, 2010 Napier, E.R. [2423], Tanzania K000441345
    Apr 1, 2010 Thomas, A.S. [Th323], Uganda K000441426
    Apr 1, 2010 Haarer, A.E. [811], Tanzania K000441370
    Apr 1, 2010 Jarrett, T. [461], Uganda K000441368
    Apr 1, 2010 Purseglove, J.W. [P3563], Uganda K000441334
    Apr 1, 2010 Purseglove, J.W. [P3111], Uganda K000441336
    Apr 1, 2010 Purseglove, J.W. [P2504], Uganda K000441371
    Feb 10, 2009 Codd, L.E. [1478], South Africa K000441444
    Feb 10, 2009 Scheffler, G. [286], Kenya K000441456
    Feb 10, 2009 Lugard, E.J. [238], Kenya K000441443
    Feb 10, 2009 Fourcade, H.G. [1216], South Africa K000441446
    Feb 10, 2009 Jean Louis [5487], Congo K000441454
    Feb 10, 2009 Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [4611], Cameroon K000441452
    Feb 10, 2009 Prior, J. [263], Swaziland K000441445
    Feb 10, 2009 Theron, G.C. [1593], South Africa K000441450
    Feb 10, 2009 McClean, A.P.D. [582], South Africa K000441448
    Feb 10, 2009 Connell, B. [33], South Africa K000441449
    Feb 10, 2009 Breda [1159], South Africa K000441451
    Feb 6, 2009 Bally, P.R.O. [B2517], Kenya K000441427
    Feb 6, 2009 Napier, E.R. [1131], Kenya K000441434
    Feb 6, 2009 Napier, E.R. [1131], Kenya K000441438
    Feb 6, 2009 Burtt, B.D. [3262], Rwanda K000441424
    Feb 6, 2009 Burtt, B.D. [3262], Rwanda K000441431
    Feb 6, 2009 Codd, L.E. [3319], South Africa K000441416
    Feb 6, 2009 Hendrickx, F.L. [F.L.H.1410], Congo K000441433
    Feb 6, 2009 Whittall, E. [227], Kenya K000441442
    Feb 6, 2009 Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K000441421
    Feb 6, 2009 Perdue, R.E. [8393], Kenya K000441430
    Feb 6, 2009 Dowson, W.J. [477], Kenya K000441439
    Feb 6, 2009 Devred, R. [832], Congo K000441437
    Feb 6, 2009 Paulo, S. [550], Kenya K000441420
    Feb 6, 2009 Wyk, E. van [EVW496], South Africa K000441405
    Feb 6, 2009 Graham, M.D. [1711], Kenya K000441423
    Feb 6, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [23844], Tanzania K000441425
    Feb 6, 2009 Pedergast, H.D.V. [HDVP375], Swaziland K000441422
    Feb 6, 2009 Veterinary Invest Labs, Nakuru [M438], Kenya K000441428
    Feb 6, 2009 Jayad, C. [23], Kenya K000441429
    Feb 6, 2009 Hanland, P. [H10658], Kenya K000441432
    Jan 30, 2009 Bally, P.R.O. [B7496], Kenya K000441342
    Jan 30, 2009 Bally, P.R.O. [B7439], Kenya K000441363
    Jan 30, 2009 Eggeling, W.J. [1134], Uganda K000441373
    Jan 30, 2009 Hepper, F.N. [4911], Kenya K000441344
    Jan 30, 2009 Hepper, F.N. [4911], Kenya K000441455
    Jan 30, 2009 Tanner, R.E.S. [6035], Uganda K000441341
    Jan 30, 2009 Tanner, R.E.S. [5020], Tanzania K000441359
    Jan 30, 2009 Bogdan, A. [AB2953], Kenya K000441355
    Jan 30, 2009 Stolz, A. [1532], Tanzania K000441365
    Jan 30, 2009 Thulin, M. [3162], Tanzania K000441340
    Jan 30, 2009 Thulin, M. [2937], Tanzania K000441353
    Jan 30, 2009 Perdue, R.E. [9109], Kenya K000441346
    Jan 30, 2009 Haarer, A.E. [2465], Tanzania K000441366
    Jan 30, 2009 Borhidi, A. [85505], Tanzania K000441360
    Jan 30, 2009 Lye, K.A. [6243], Uganda K000441374
    Jan 30, 2009 Dümmer, R.A. [1766], Kenya K000441337
    Jan 30, 2009 Dümmer, R.A. [4463], Uganda K000441349
    Jan 30, 2009 Ussher, C.B. [31], Uganda K000441350
    Jan 30, 2009 Kerfoot, O. [1538], Tanzania K000441354
    Jan 30, 2009 Katende, A.B. [1800], Uganda K000441361
    Jan 30, 2009 Saint Clair Thompson, G.W. [410], Tanzania K000441357
    Jan 30, 2009 Saint Clair Thompson, G.W. [595], Tanzania K000441362
    Jan 30, 2009 Symes, Y.E. [635], Kenya K000441369
    Jan 30, 2009 Tweedie, J. [696], Kenya K000441364
    Jan 30, 2009 Renvoize, S.A. [1879], Tanzania K000441343
    Jan 30, 2009 Scott-Elliot, G.F. [7778], Uganda K000441347
    Jan 30, 2009 Scott-Elliot, G.F. [6977], Kenya K000441348
    Jan 30, 2009 Germain, R.G.A. [3980], Congo K000441338
    Jan 30, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [24651], Tanzania K000441352
    Jan 30, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [24668], Tanzania K000441358
    Jan 30, 2009 Richards, H.M. Mrs [21810], Tanzania K000441372
    Jan 30, 2009 Kangai Mulu [3], Kenya K000441351
    Jan 30, 2009 Maas Geesternanus, R.A. [4978], Kenya K000441367
    Jan 22, 2009 Tanner, R.E.S. [5511], Tanzania K000441322
    Jan 22, 2009 Milne-Redhead, E. [10290], Tanzania K000441315
    Jan 22, 2009 Hughes [214], Tanzania K000441317
    Jan 22, 2009 Thomas, A.S. [Th3812], Uganda K000441321
    Jan 22, 2009 Stauffer, H.U. [558], Congo K000441331
    Jan 22, 2009 Lewalle, J. [65], Burundi K000441328
    Jan 22, 2009 Grimshaw, J.M. [JMG94448], Tanzania K000441312
    Jan 22, 2009 Snowden, J.D. [1612], Uganda K000441333
    Jan 22, 2009 Borhidi, A. [85505], Tanzania K000441307
    Jan 22, 2009 Loveridge, M.V. [486], Uganda K000441335
    Jan 22, 2009 Kerfoot, O. [2107], Kenya K000441314
    Jan 22, 2009 Mbale, M. [NMK835], Kenya K000441316
    Jan 22, 2009 Cunningham, A. [4106], Uganda K000441332
    Jan 22, 2009 Cunningham, M. [4054], Uganda K000441323
    Jan 22, 2009 Watkins, ? [149], Uganda K000441318
    Jan 22, 2009 Watkins, ? [287], Tanzania K000441320
    Jan 22, 2009 Cheseny, C.M. [21], Kenya K000441319
    Jan 22, 2009 Goode, P.M. [G672], Uganda K000441326
    Dec 31, 2008 Latilo, M.G. [FHI34356], Cameroon K000441277
    Dec 31, 2008 Andrews, F.W. [A1954], Sudan K000441282
    Dec 31, 2008 Marais, W. [126], South Africa K000441291
    Dec 31, 2008 Crook, A.O. [M124], Zimbabwe K000441299
    Dec 31, 2008 Stauffer, H.U. [559], Congo K000441276
    Dec 31, 2008 Brummitt, R.K. [15212], Malawi K000441302
    Dec 31, 2008 Brummitt, R.K. [12213], Malawi K000441303
    Dec 31, 2008 Friis, I. [440], Sudan K000441281
    Dec 31, 2008 Scheepers, J.C. [1043], South Africa K000441294
    Dec 31, 2008 Wild, H. [473], Zimbabwe K000441298
    Dec 31, 2008 Adamson, G. [139], Malawi K000441306
    Dec 31, 2008 Schlieben, H.J. [7169], South Africa K000441289
    Dec 31, 2008 Buchanan, J. [138], Malawi K000441304
    Dec 31, 2008 Bolus, H. [4754], South Africa K000441288
    Dec 31, 2008 Kuntze, O. [1140], South Africa K000441287
    Dec 31, 2008 Meller, C.J. [s.n.], Malawi K000441285
    Dec 31, 2008 Torre, A.R. [3021], Mozambique K000441296
    Dec 31, 2008 Scott, L. [s.n.], Malawi K000441284
    Dec 31, 2008 Shantz, H.L. [78], South Africa K000441290
    Dec 31, 2008 [illegible] [4397], Zimbabwe K000441297
    Dec 31, 2008 Ghesquiere, J. [723], Congo K000441278
    Dec 31, 2008 Gilliland, H.B. [494], Zimbabwe K000441301
    Dec 31, 2008 Macuacua, L. [1331], Mozambique K000441295
    Dec 31, 2008 Wager, V.A. [39286], Congo K000441280
    Dec 31, 2008 Cunningham, J.F. [25], Malawi K000441305
    Dec 31, 2008 Lebrun, J.P. [3737], Congo K000441275
    Dec 31, 2008 Lebrun, J.P. [7134], Congo K000441279
    Dec 31, 2008 Methuen, L.o.r.d. [220A-B], Zimbabwe K000441300
    Dec 31, 2008 Louis, J.L.P. [5487], Congo K000441274
    Dec 31, 2008 Smuto, G.B. [32], South Africa K000441286
    Dec 30, 2008 Bos, J.J. [1320], South Africa K000441264
    Dec 30, 2008 Lebrun, J.P. [9089], Congo K000441271
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13600], Cameroon K000580117
    Nov 1, 2008 Letouzey, R. [13490], Cameroon K000028634
    Feb 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [4380], Cameroon K000109669
    Feb 1, 2000 Onana, J.-M. [505], Cameroon K000339160
    Aug 1, 1961 Swarbrick, J. T. [2395], Cameroon K000028635
    Nov 1, 1958 Hepper, F.N. [2183], Cameroon K000028638
    Jul 2, 1905 Scheffler, G. [306], Kenya K000441283
    Jul 1, 1905 Meurillon, A. [CNAD1266], Cameroon K000028633
    Kenya 16336.000
    Richards, H.M. [23844], Tanzania 7414.000
    Hughes, J. [214], Tanzania 16654.000
    Hughes [214], Tanzania K001156734
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [10277], Cameroon K001167991
    Luke, Q. [14273], Kenya K001156736
    Welwitsch [6095], Angola K000414089 Unknown type material
    Welwitsch [6095b], Angola K000414090
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000414158
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000414160 isotype
    Flanagan, H.G. [1290], South Africa K000414159 isotype
    Bolus, H. [s.n.], South Africa K000441293
    Longman, H.A. [s.n.] K001167992
    Wolley-Dod, A.H. [409], South Africa K000414157 isotype
    KSCP [3/74/2000], Kenya K001156735
    Ujor, E.U. [FHI 30449], Cameroon K000028636

    Bibliography

    First published in Prodr. 13(1): 366 (1852)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bitter in Fedde Rep. 16: 166 (1923).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 243
    • in DC. Prod. 13, 1: 366 (1852)

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergreen For. Fl. Malawi: 555 (2001).
    • M. Coates Palgrave, ed. 3 of K. Coates Palgrave, Trees Southern Africa: 999 (2000).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 244 (1994).
    • Beentje, Kenya Trees, Shrubs & Lianas: 579 (1994).
    • D'Arcy, Solanac. Biol. & Syst.: 53 (1986).
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 375, 376, fig. 121/2 (1985).
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 262 (1984).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 654, fig. 226/2A (1982)
    • K. Coates Palgrave, Trees South. Africa, ed. 2.: 820, 821 cum map et fig. (1981).
    • Kirkia 10: 272 (1975).
    • Palmer & Pitman, Trees South. Africa 3: 1983 (1973).
    • Ross, Fl. Natal: 308 (1972).
    • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Pois. Pl. E. Afr.: 168, 171 (1969).
    • Binns, First Check List Herb. Fl. Malawi: 98 (1968).
    • Bull. Jard. Bot. État 33, Suppl.: 861 (1963).
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 2, 2: 332 (1963).
    • Watt & Bryer-Brandwijk, Med. & Pois. Pl. S. & E. Africa, ed. 2: 990 (1962).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees & Shrubs: 538 (1961).
    • Common Rhod. Weeds: fig. 88 (1955).
    • Wild, S. Rhod. Bot. Dict.: 125 (1953)
    • Brenan & Greenway, Check-list For. Trees Shrubs Tang. Terr.: 585 (1949).
    • Robyns, Fl. Sperm. Parc Nat. Alb. 2: 214 (1947).
    • Marloth, Fl. S. Africa 3, 1: 119, t. 26 (1932).
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 166 (1923).
    • J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 40: 151 (1911).
    • T. & H. Durand, Syll. Fl. Congol.: 391 (1909).
    • Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38: 193 (1906).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 243 (1906).
    • F.C. 4, 2: 95 (1904)
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 366 (1852).

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 138 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8(4): 107 (2005)
    • K.T.S.L.: 579 (1994)
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 244 (1994)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 189 (1992)
    • T.T.C.L.: 585 (1949)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 243 (1906)
    • DC., Prodr. 13(1): 366 (1852)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (19632)
    • I.T.U.: 413 (195)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0