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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum aethiopicum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is a cultigen from NE. Tropical Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Ethiopia, J. Burser vol. 9 no. 17 (UPS, lecto. designated by Hepper & Jaeger in K.B. 40: 391, 1985)
    Habit
    Annual or perennial herb or shrub, 0.3–1 m, erect, unarmed;
    Stem
    young stems glabrous to ± stellate-pubescent with trichomes porrect, translucent or orangetranslucent, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks up to 0.1 mm, rays ± 8(–12), 0.15–0.3 mm, midpoints shorter than rays
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying concolorous to discolorous, yellowgreen to dark red-brown or almost black, 2–3 times longer than wide, ovate (elliptic), 5–18 × 2.5–10 cm, base cuneate to rounded, often unequal or oblique, margin subentire to weakly lobed, the lobes up to 3 on each side, up to 1.5 cm long, broadly rounded (acute) and extending up to 1/4 of the distance to the midvein, apex acute; glabrous to stellate-pubescent; trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays ± 8(–12), 0.2–0.35 mm, midpoints shorter than rays, adaxially with thick stalks and reduced rays and midpoints, often with minute simple hairs; primary veins 3–6 pairs; petiole 1–4 cm, 1/4–1/3 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences not branched, with 1–2(10) flowers, 1–1.8 cm long; peduncle 0–0.5 mm long; rachis 0–1 cm long; pedicels 0.5–2 cm long in flower, in fruit 0.7–2.5 cm long. Flowers perfect, 5–10-merous
    Calyx
    Calyx 3.5–9 mm long, lobes broadly deltate, 1.5–5 mm long, acute
    Corolla
    Corolla white, 0.8–1.8 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 2/3 of its length, lobes deltate, 2.5–8 × 1.5–4.5 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; anthers 2.3–4(–6) mm
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous or stellate-pubescent in the upper 1/5; style 4.5–9 mm long
    Fruits
    Berries 1–4 per infructescence, evenly green or striped when young, orange at maturity, spherical or variously shaped, (10–)15–25(–50) mm in diameter
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.1–3.5 × 2–2.5 mm
    Ecology
    Cultivated in woodland and wooded grassland zones; does not naturalise
    Note
    Solanum aethiopicum is a widespread cultivated vegetable crop, and includes all cultivated forms of S. anguivi. Solanum aethiopicum can be identified and distinguished from S. anguivi by a combination of the following characters: annual herbaceous habit, frequent lack of stellate indumentum, smaller and more entire leaves, 1–2(–10) flowers per inflorescence, short and thick pedicels of fruit crop varieties, more than 5 perianth lobes, ovary enlarged even at anthesis, fruit over 1 cm in diameter and with more than two locules, not detaching easily from the pedicels, immature fruit striped and/or not green when immature, and seeds over 2.5 mm long. Leaf vegetable varieties are easily recognizable by their thin membranous leaves and dark red-brown, almost black drying colour; these have up to 10 small flowers. Precise limits of this species are difficult to specify due to the wide variety of infrequently occurring characters. Prickly forms of S. aethiopicum have been recorded from European botanical gardens (Lester & Niakan, In: Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics, pp. 433–456. 1986), but are not known in Africa. Solanum aethiopicum, S. gilo, S. olivare, and S. integrifolium are all interfertile cultivated races of S. anguivi. The cultivars have been separated into four groups: Gilo group (with stellate hairs and large fleshy variably shaped fruits that taste like carrots or green beans, common in Brazil), Shum group (leaf vegetable with no stellate hairs or prickles, small fruits ± 2 cm in diameter, common in Africa), Kumba group (edible leaves that are almost glabrous as well as sweet broad deeply-grooved fruits), and Aculeatum Group (with prickles, broad and deeply furrowed fruit, common in European botanical gardens but not known in Africa). Solanum anguivi was maintained as a distinct wild to semicultivated species due to its largely distinct morphology, lack of wild intermediates, and a probable selective pressure against new hybrids between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi. Synonyms listed here are only those in common use or based on African types. Complete synonymy for S. aethiopicum can be found on the Solanaceae Source website (http://www.solanaceaesource.org).
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 Range: Madagascar, and throughout South America and in some parts of Europe and Asia Range: Widely distributed in cultivation: Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Niger, Ghana, Togo, Benin, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Central African Republic, Chad, Equatorial Guinea, Congo-Kinshasa, Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi,
    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A glabrous herb up to 2 ft. high
    Flowers
    White or pale violet flowers up to 2/3 in. diam.
    Fruits
    Globose, red shining fruits up to 3/4 in. diam.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Eritrea, Ethiopia

    Introduced into:

    Angola, Benin, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Congo, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Illinois, Ivory Coast, Kentucky, Kenya, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Vietnam, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum aethiopicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [63], Cameroon K000109670
    Feb 1, 2002 Biye, E. [35], Cameroon K000109671
    Jan 1, 1997 s.coll [s.n.] K001159961
    Mar 30, 1995 Morton, J.K. [4193], Ghana K000212471
    Mar 30, 1995 Hall [47129], Ghana K000489375
    Mar 30, 1995 Thomas, N.W. [146], Nigeria K000489377
    Mar 30, 1995 Lester, R.N. [046], Nigeria K000489376
    Jan 1, 1994 Pervillé, M. [510], Madagascar K000212238 lectotype
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [5001], Madagascar K000212237
    Jun 28, 1905 Ramos, M. [15341], Philippines K000195941
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F10143], Zambia K001158350
    Chevalier, A. [8517], Central African Republic K001155823
    Myers, J.G. [6587], Sudan K001156013
    Gossweiler, J. [7966] K001155824
    Greenway [6061], Tanzania K001156746
    Louis, J. [11117], Congo K001155806
    Baldwin, J.T. [6694], Liberia K001155628
    Morton, J.K. [SL2838] K001155629
    Trapnell, C.G. [1455], Zambia K001158351
    Trapnell, C.G. [1459], Zambia K001158352
    Trapnell, C.G. [1456], Zambia K001158354
    Trapnell, C.G. [1754], Zambia K001158355
    Trapnell, C.G. [1454/1], Zambia K001158359
    Raynal, J. [20363], Rwanda K001155828
    Schweinfurth, G. [3429] K001156014
    Hall [GC47126] K001155617
    Hall [GC47115] K001155623
    Hall [GC47110] K001155624
    Hall [GC47119] K001155625
    Bates, G.L. [s.n.], Cameroon K001155810
    Bates, G.L. [279] K001155822
    Welwitsch [6093], Angola K001029791
    Welwitsch [6091], Angola K001029792
    Linder, D.H. [1850], Congo K001155820
    Russell, P.G. [52220], Uganda K001156742
    Nee, M. [16076], USA K001168006
    Jenman [6483], Guyana K001168003
    Baum, H. [725], Angola K001029793
    Buchanan [155], Uganda K001158356 paratype
    Buchanan, J. [6226], Malawi K001158357
    Buchanan, J. [1186], Malawi K001158358
    Tessmann, G. [78], Guinea K001155618
    Tessmann, G. [2518], Cameroon K001155809
    Tessmann, G. [525], Equatorial Guinea K001155811
    Tessmann, G. [524], Equatorial Guinea K001155812
    Seemann [167] K001162547
    Dümmer, R. [2477], Uganda K001156753
    Welw. [6077b], Angola K001029789 paratype
    Thomas, N.W. [1237], Nigeria K001155626
    Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K000414098 Unknown type material
    Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001029790
    Gbile, Z.O. [FHI67578], Nigeria K001168013
    Casas, F. [11991], Equatorial Guinea K001155819
    Gouan [s.n.] K001156016
    Elliot, G.F.S. [4955] K001155630
    Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155825
    Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155826
    Wager, V.A. [s.n.], Congo K001155827
    Westphal, E. [9141], Cameroon K001168010
    Westphal, E. [9811], Cameroon K001168011
    Tallantire, A.C. [t671], Uganda K001156738
    Sigara [102], Tanzania K001156748
    Purseglove, J.W. [P3562], Uganda K001156739
    Purseglove, J.W. [3562], Uganda K001156741
    Purseglove, J.W. [P1201], Uganda K001156743
    Purseglove, J.W. [P1202], Uganda K001156744
    Purseglove, J.W. [P1203], Uganda K001156751
    s.coll [s.n.] K001167999
    s.coll [8727] K001168000
    s.coll [8727] K001168001
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001168002
    s.coll [s.n.], United Kingdom K001168004
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168005
    s.coll [s.n.] K001168007
    s.coll [117], Cameroon K001168008
    s.coll [8], Nigeria K001168009
    s.coll [FHI67578], Nigeria K001168012
    s.coll [316], Nigeria K001155620
    s.coll [8] K001155808
    s.coll [P3563], Uganda K001156740
    s.coll [450] K001156745
    s.coll [D32], Uganda K001156750
    s.coll [D42], Uganda K001156752
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [22124], Côte d'Ivoire K001155627
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [s.n.], Sudan K001155631
    Michael Fay, J. [5426], Central African Republic K001155813
    Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155814
    Michael Fay, J. [5420], Central African Republic K001155815
    Michael Fay, J. [5421], Central African Republic K001155816
    Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155817
    Michael Fay, J. [s.n.], Central African Republic K001155818
    Yates, C.C. [20A], Nigeria K001155619
    Yates, C.C. [43], Nigeria K001155621
    Yates, C.C. [13A], Nigeria K001155622
    Phiri, R. [128], Zambia K001158353
    Mbailwa [82], Tanzania K001156747
    Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001155821
    Herb Gay, J. [s.n.] K001156015
    Irvine, F.B. [3604], Nigeria K001168014
    Frank, H. [H184/55], Tanzania K001156749
    Nov 1, 1958 Thomas, N.W. [4357], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212463
    Nov 1, 1958 Thomas, N.W. [456], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212464
    Nov 1, 1958 s.coll. [52], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212466
    Nov 1, 1958 Fisher, J.D. [91], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212462
    Nov 1, 1958 Garrette, G.H. [22], Sierra Leone Solanum melongena var. inerme K000212465
    Myers, J.G. [10219], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168898
    Tallantine, A. [671], Uganda Solanum gilo 27157.000
    Mann G. [1872], Equatorial Guinea Solanum gilo K000414037
    Katende, A.B. [66], Uganda Solanum gilo K001168900
    Makina, B. [11907], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168897
    Makina, B. [11886], Sudan Solanum gilo K001168899
    Rio de Janeiro Solanum worsleyi K000590092
    Rio de Janeiro Solanum worsleyi K000590093
    Burchell [8517], Brazil Solanum worsleyi K001058887
    Solanum integrifolium 27797.000
    Symon, D.E. [31470] Solanum integrifolium K001169053
    s.coll [4], United Kingdom Solanum integrifolium K001169052

    Bibliography

    First published in Cent. Pl. II 2: 10 (1756)

    Accepted by

    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (1994). Flora of China 17: 1-378. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • F.W.T.A., ed. 1, 2: 208, partly (Thomas 146) and excl. syn.
    • Bitter in Fedde Rep. 16: 44 (1923).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 217, partly
    • Amoen. Acad. 4: 307 (1759)

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 332 (1963).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 217 (1906)
    • Cent. Pl. 2: 10 (1756)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0