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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum anguivi Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Comoros, Madagascar.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Mauritius [Île de France], garden of Monsieur Cossigny, 1769, Commerson s.n. (MPU, lecto., designated by Hepper 1978: 290; P-JU, P, isolecto.)
    General
    Shrub, 0.7–2 m, erect, armed or unarmed; young stems stellate-pubescent; trichomes porrect, orange-translucent, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays 6–8, 0.1–0.25 mm, midpoints same length as rays or to 2 mm; prickles up to 5(–10) × 1–4 mm at base, straight to curved, rounded to flattened
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying discolorous, green-brown, ovate to elliptic, (5–)11–25 × 5–17 cm, 1.5–2.5 times longer than wide, base cuneate to rounded, usually unequal or oblique, margin usually lobed, sometimes subentire, the lobes up to 5 on each side, broadly deltate, to 2(–3) cm long and rounded to acute, extending up to 1/3(–1/2) of the distance to the midvein, apex acute(acuminate); sparsely to densely stellate-pubescent on both sides with trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or shortly stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays 6–8, 0.1–0.3 mm, midpoints same length as rays or up to 1.5 mm long, adaxially with reduced rays and elongated midpoints; primary veins 4–7 pairs; petiole 1–5 cm, 1/4–1/6 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 2.5–6 cm long, not branched or branched once, with 5–22 flowers, peduncle 2–20 mm long; rachis 0.6–5 cm long; peduncle and rachis unarmed; pedicels 0.5–1.2 cm long in flower, in fruit 0.8–1.3 cm long, usually unarmed
    Flowers
    Flowers perfect, 5-merous
    Calyx
    Calyx 3–5 mm long, the lobes deltate to somewhat ovate, 1–2 mm long, acute, unarmed or with 1–4 prickles
    Corolla
    Corolla white to mauve, 0.8–1.5 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 2/3 of its length, the lobes deltate, 3–6 × 2–3 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; anthers 3.5–5 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary with a few stellate trichomes towards the apex; style 6–8 mm long
    Fruits
    Berries 6–22 per infructescence, evenly green when young, red at maturity, spherical, 6–9 mm in diameter; fruiting calyx unarmed
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.8–2.5 × 1.8–2.3 mm
    Figures
    Fig 20, p 168
    Ecology
    Forest and forest edges, wooded grassland, grassland, bushland, disturbed areas, old cultivation, and roadsides; (40–)1000–2200(–3100) m
    Note
    Solanum anguivi is the second most common and variable species of spiny Solanum in Africa (after S. campylacanthum), and encompasses a great deal of morphological and genetic variation. Numerous instances of single morphologically anomalous specimens from different parts of Africa fall within S. anguivi sensu lato and it is possible these will be recognised as independent taxa following further research. Cultivated forms of S. anguivi are widespread and placed here in S. aethiopicum. Solanum anguivi is maintained as a distinct wild to semicultivated species due to its largely distinct morphology, lack of wild intermediates, and a probable selective pressure against new hybrids between S. aethiopicum and S. anguivi. For the last 150 years the name “Solanum indicum L.” has been applied to both the African S. anguivi and the Asian S. violaceum Ortega, as well as other superficially similar prickly taxa. Due to historic confusion and widespread misapplication the epithet “indicum” was rejected; extensive evidence has demonstrated that S. anguivi is not directly related to the Asian S. violaceum. Synonyms listed here are only those in common use or based on African types. Complete synonymy for S. anguivi can be found on the Solanaceae Source website (http://www.solanaceaesource.org).
    Distribution
    Range: Madagascar Range: Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Togo, Nigeria, Cameroon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, South Sudan, Ethiopia, Angola, Zambia, Malawi, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, South Af Flora districts: U1 U2 U3 U4 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from Madagascar, Monsieur Cassigny garden, 1769, Commerson s.n. (MPU, holotype; P), probably raised from material cultivated in Mauritius Is.
    General
    Erect to spreading, woody herb, shrub or very rarely a small tree to 4(5) m, usually armed; hairs stellate, sessile or shortly stalked, with short to long rays, the central ray sometimes longer; prickles yellowish to brownish or occasionally dark purple basally, few to many, straight or somewhat recurved, up to 13 mm long and 5 mm wide at the base, ± hairy to glabrous
    Corolla
    Corolla white tinged pink, purple to blue outside, sometimes so only proximally, 8–18(20) mm across, ± stelliform; lobes 3.5–9 × 1. 5–4 mm, ovate-lanceolate to linear, acute, densely hairy or hairy only on median region and apex outside and less so to subglabrous inside Corolla white tinged pink, purple to blue outside, sometimes so only proximally, 8–18(20) mm across, ± stelliform; lobes 3.5–9 × 1.5–4 mm, ovate-lanceolate to linear, acute, densely hairy or hairy only on median region and apex outside and less so to subglabrous inside.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 0–1. 5 mm long; anthers 3–6 mm long, linear-oblong or lanceolate in outline, cordate basally, ± straight Stamen filaments 0–1.5 mm long; anthers 3–6 mm long, linear-oblong or lanceolate in outline, cordate basally, ± straight.
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous or with a few hairs near the top.
    Style
    Style 6–8 mm long, straight or slightly curved at the apex, usually hairy on lower three quarters
    Fruits
    Fruit at first green, later yellow to red, glossy, turning brown or blackish with age, 6–12(13) mm in diameter, globose, occasionally with a few hairs near the top, 2–3-locular, fleshy and edible when mature, easily detached Fruit at first green, later yellow to red, glossy, turning brown or blackish with age, 6–12(13) mm in diameter, globose, occasionally with a few hairs near the top, 2–3-locular, fleshy and edible when mature, easily detached.
    Ecology
    Markedly tolerant of open and shady sites in and at edges of both dry and wet forests, montane grassland and bushland, riverine associations, savanna woodland, thickets and coastal bushland, generally absent from miombo woodland except on termite mounds, rock outcrops and cultivated areas, formerly used as a food plant and frequently associated with habitations, in waste places, occasionally a weed; up to 2380 m.
    Note
    Some of the variation may be the result of the influence of man imposing selection pressures in the course of domesticating the plants now known as S. aethiopicum, see p. 69. Much of the superficial variation, in such features as armature, indumentum, leaf size and leaf lobes, is associated with its wide ecological tolerance.
    Distribution
    Widespread in tropical Africa; outside the Flora Zambesiaca area recorded from West and East Africa extending northwards to Ethiopia and southwards to South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal), and also from Angola and Dem. Rep. Congo, occurring also in Aldabra, Comor ZAM N, ZAM W, ZAM E, ZIM C, ZIM E, ZIM S, MAL N, MAL C, MAL S, MOZ N, MOZ Z, MOZ T, MOZ MS Zimbabwe Zambia Malawi Mozambique
    Habit
    Erect to spreading, woody herb, shrub or very rarely a small tree to 4(5) m, usually armed; hairs stellate, sessile or shortly stalked, with short to long rays, the central ray sometimes longer; prickles yellowish to brownish or occasionally dark purple basally, few to many, straight or somewhat recurved, up to 13 mm long and 5 mm wide at the base, ± hairy to glabrous.
    Branches
    Branches occasionally purplish tinged, tomentose, tardily glabrescent, usually with scattered prickles. Branches occasionally purplish tinged, tomentose, tardily glabrescent, usually with scattered prickles
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or appearing geminate; petiole (0.5)1–4.5(6.5) cm long; lamina ± membranous, 3–19(22) × (1.5)2–12(18) cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, very rarely suborbicular, base truncate or rounded to attenuate, sometimes ± cordate, and often ± unequal-sided, occasionally decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse to acute or acuminate, subentire to lobed, the lobes ± triangular or ovate-triangular, obtuse to acute, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, tomentose at first, becoming more thinly hairy above, sometimes with the central ray of the hairs longer than the others, ± persistently densely hairy beneath, forms from shady sites much less hairy, forms in exposed places quite felty, both surfaces with a few ± straight prickles mostly on the midrib and secondary nerves, rarely unarmed. Leaves solitary or appearing geminate; petiole (0.5)1–4.5(6.5) cm long; lamina ± membranous, 3–19(22) × (1. 5)2–12(18) cm, ovate or rhombic-ovate to elliptic or lanceolate, very rarely suborbicular, base truncate or rounded to attenuate, sometimes ± cordate, and often ± unequal-sided, occasionally decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse to acute or acuminate, subentire to lobed, the lobes ± triangular or ovate-triangular, obtuse to acute, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, tomentose at first, becoming more thinly hairy above, sometimes with the central ray of the hairs longer than the others, ± persistently densely hairy beneath, forms from shady sites much less hairy, forms in exposed places quite felty, both surfaces with a few ± straight prickles mostly on the midrib and secondary nerves, rarely unarmed
    Inflorescences
    Cymes mostly lateral, leaf-remote, unbranched or occasionally once forked, generally racemiform, (2)4–20(25)-flowered, usually all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile, widely and ± equally spaced often on a well developed rhachis, occasionally the flowers sub-umbelliform or solitary, tomentose to minutely hairy, sometimes with purplish hairs; peduncle up to 3 cm long, prickly to quite unarmed; pedicels 3–9 mm long, slender, thickened and occasionally prickly distally, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 15 mm, stouter, erect to deflexed. Cymes mostly lateral, leaf-remote, unbranched or occasionally once forked, generally racemiform, (2)4–20(25)-flowered, usually all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile, widely and ± equally spaced often on a well developed rhachis, occasionally the flowers sub-umbelliform or solitary, tomentose to minutely hairy, sometimes with purplish hairs; peduncle up to 3 cm long, prickly to quite unarmed; pedicels 3–9 mm long, slender, thickened and occasionally prickly distally, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 15 mm, stouter, erect to deflexed
    Flowers
    Flowers (4)5-merous. Flowers (4)5-merous
    Calyx
    Calyx purple, violaceous or maroon, tomentose to moderately hairy, unarmed or occasionally prickly; tube 1–3 mm long, shortly campanulate or cupular; lobes ± unequal, 0.5–2.5 × 0.5–1.7 mm, shortly triangular to oblong-cuspidate or linear, obtuse or acute to long-acuminate, sparingly hairy inside. Calyx purple, violaceous or maroon, tomentose to moderately hairy, unarmed or occasionally prickly; tube 1–3 mm long, shortly campanulate or cupular; lobes ± unequal, 0.5–2.5 × 0.5–1. 7 mm, shortly triangular to oblong-cuspidate or linear, obtuse or acute to long-acuminate, sparingly hairy inside
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 1 mm in diameter, ± globose, glabrous or with a few hairs near the top; style 6–8 mm long, straight or slightly curved at the apex, usually hairy on lower three quarters.
    Seeds
    Seeds whitish to yellowish, more rarely orange to light purple, 2–3 × 1.5–2.8 mm, lenticular-reniform or oblong to discoid, verruculous-rugose to minutely pitted all over. Seeds whitish to yellowish, more rarely orange to light purple, 2–3 × 1. 5–2.8 mm, lenticular-reniform or oblong to discoid, verruculous-rugose to minutely pitted all over

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Comoros, Congo, Djibouti, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    East Himalaya, Mauritius, Queensland, Réunion

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum anguivi Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 8, 2010 Manning, S.D. [2182], Cameroon K000028662
    Oct 8, 2010 Manning, S.D. [1590], Cameroon K000028666
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13348], Cameroon K000580115
    Nov 1, 2008 Cheek, M. [13643], Cameroon K000580178
    Nov 1, 2008 Cable, S. [1243], Cameroon K000541989
    Jan 1, 2008 Cable, S. [1622], Cameroon K000541998
    Jan 1, 2008 Ndam, N. [146], Cameroon K000541985
    Jul 1, 2007 Tchiengue, B. [2179], Cameroon K000436417
    Jan 1, 2004 Pollard, B.J. [506], Cameroon K000212995
    Jan 1, 2004 Zapfack, L. [2127], Cameroon K000212994
    Jan 1, 2004 Biye, E. [87], Cameroon K000212993
    Jun 1, 2003 Cable, S. [1242], Cameroon K000109677
    Jun 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1673], Cameroon K000109676
    Jun 1, 2003 Groves, M. [50], Cameroon K000109678
    Jun 1, 2003 Biye, E. [25], Cameroon K000109675
    Dec 1, 2000 Buzgo, M. [640], Cameroon K000339164
    Jul 1, 1995 Maitland, T.D. [0 s.n.76], Cameroon K000028609
    Jul 1, 1995 Letouzey, R. [13491], Cameroon K000028611
    Jan 1, 1995 Hutchinson, J. [16], Cameroon K000028615
    Jan 1, 1995 Swarbrick, J.T. [2331], Cameroon K000028608
    Jan 1, 1994 Hodgkin, H.T. [167], Madagascar K000212275
    Apr 4, 1991 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212282
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [993], Madagascar K000212269
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [3327], Madagascar K000212270
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [5013], Madagascar K000212271
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [4896], Madagascar K000212273
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [4160], Madagascar K000212274
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [5091], Madagascar K000212276
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [5022], Madagascar K000212277
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [747], Madagascar K000212278
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [1584], Madagascar K000212279
    Apr 4, 1991 Baron, R. [1415], Madagascar K000212280
    Apr 4, 1991 s.coll. [168], Madagascar K000212281
    Apr 4, 1991 Gerard, W.Y. [s.n.], Madagascar K000212268
    Apr 1, 1984 Welwitsch [6090], Angola K000414093 syntype
    Apr 1, 1984 Welwitsch [6089], Angola K000414094 syntype
    Apr 1, 1984 Welwitsch [6104], Angola K000414095 syntype
    Apr 1, 1984 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [388], Zimbabwe K000414096 Unknown type material
    Apr 1, 1984 Swynnerton, C.F.M. [388], Zimbabwe K000414097 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1983 D'Arcy, W.G. [8871], Rwanda K000489476
    Jul 3, 1905 Hepper, F.N. [4101], Central African Republic K000658560
    Jul 3, 1905 Luke, W.R.K. [10606z], Congo K000788337
    Jul 1, 1905 Saxer, A. [84], Cameroon K000028614
    Jul 1, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [424a], Cameroon K000028617
    Jul 1, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [306], Cameroon K000028618
    Jul 1, 1905 Ruffo, C.K. [165], Tanzania K000441518
    Jul 1, 1905 Ngomba, J.N. [4], Cameroon K000028610
    Holmes, W.D. [1472], Zambia K001158409
    Greenway, P.J. [12443], Tanzania K001156815
    Greenway, P.J. [12768], Kenya K001156913
    Greenway, P.J. [114], Kenya K001156988
    Gillett, J.B. [16842], Kenya K001156914
    Bally, P.R.O. [2237], Tanzania K001156813
    Bally, P.R.O. [4960], Kenya K001156867
    Bally, P.R.O. [1162], Kenya K001156869
    Bally, P.R.O. [7790], Kenya K001156878
    Bally, P.R.O. [7791], Kenya K001156884
    Bally, P.R.O. [7782], Kenya K001156887
    Bally, P.R.O. [5551], Kenya K001156900
    Bally, P.R.O. [5561], Kenya K001156908
    Bally, P.R.O. [5097], Kenya K001156921
    Onochie, C.F.A. [40291], Nigeria K000489423
    Eggeling, W.J. [5956], Uganda K001156930
    Eggeling, W.J. [2836], Uganda K001156931
    Latilo, M.G. [62294], Nigeria K000489416
    Latilo, M.G. [64621], Nigeria K000489417
    Robson, N.K.B. [1254], Malawi K001158378
    Robson, N.K.B. [480], Zambia K001158405
    Deighton, F.C. [5471], Sierra Leone K000489390
    Deighton, F.C. [1407], Sierra Leone K000489392
    Deighton, F.C. [1784], Sierra Leone K000489393
    Dalziel, J.M. [185], Nigeria K000489430
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F7282], Zambia K001158407
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F5091], Zambia K001158410
    Fanshawe, D.B. [5091], Zambia K001158411
    Fanshawe, D.B. [5091], Zambia K001158412
    Fanshawe, D.B. [689], Zambia K001158414
    Fanshawe, D.B. [F4451], Zambia K001158415
    Eyles, F. [1159], Zimbabwe K001158452
    Chandler, P. [s.n.], Uganda K001156836
    Chandler, P. [1940], Uganda K001156933
    Whellan, J.A. [1442], Zimbabwe K001158441
    Darko, K.O. [1033], Ghana K000489414
    White, F. [2782], Zambia K001158404
    Hepper, F.N. [6172], Yemen K001152064
    Hepper, F.N. [6019], Yemen K001152066
    Hepper, F.N. [7535], Ghana K001168326
    Hepper, F.N. [1828], Cameroon K001155851
    Hepper, F.N. [1586], Cameroon K001155853
    Hepper, F.N. [1707], Cameroon K001155854
    Hepper, F.N. [4986], Kenya K001156868
    Hepper, F.N. [6697], Kenya K001156906
    Hepper, F.N. [7196], Kenya K001156907
    Hepper, F.N. [6974], Kenya K001156909
    Hepper, F.N. [6628], Kenya K001156915
    Myers, J.G. [11102], Sudan K001156047
    Myers, J.G. [7882], Sudan K001156048
    Myers, J.G. [10239], Sudan K001156049
    Gossweiler, J. [9296], Angola K001168327
    Gossweiler, J. [1103], Angola K001029800
    Napier, E.R. [419], Kenya K001156877
    Napier, E.R. [419], Kenya K001156881
    Milne-Redhead, E. [4201], Angola K001029798
    Brass, L.J. [17712] K001158376
    Brass, L.J. [17128], Malawi K001158379
    Angus, A. [328], Zambia K001158419
    Angus, A. [264], Zambia K001158420
    Greenway [3073], Tanzania K001156827
    Williams, G.R. [304], Kenya K001156873
    Louis, J. [14250], Congo, DRC K000489482
    Louis, J. [5135], Congo K001155875
    Louis, J. [5135], Congo K001155876
    Baldwin, J.T. [9638], Liberia K000489395
    Morton, J.K. [3228], Ghana K000489404
    Morton, J.K. [25400], Ghana K000489406
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [6870] K001156859
    Gilbert, M.G. [6070], Kenya K001156916
    Gilbert, M.G. [5546], Kenya K001156950
    Gilbert, M.G. [5144], Kenya K001156951
    Gilbert, M.G. [6859], Kenya K001156980
    Philcox, D. [8937], Zimbabwe K001158448
    Faulkner, H. [4803], Tanzania K001156804
    Burtt, B.D. [1337], Tanzania K001156821
    Maitland, T.D. [1213], Uganda K001156860
    Maitland, T.D. [685], Uganda K001156927
    Maitland, T.D. [685], Uganda K001156928
    Maitland, T.D. [374], Uganda K001156934
    Maitland, T.D. [s.n.], Uganda K001156939
    Boughey, A.S. [18321], Côte d'Ivoire K000489399
    Bogdan, A. [4279], Kenya K001156876
    Bogdan, A. [2133], Kenya K001156978
    Kirk, J. [s.n.] K001158371
    Robertson, S.A. [4403], Kenya K001156898
    Glover [2176], Kenya K001156989
    Stauffer, H.U. [568], Congo K001155880
    Stauffer, H.U. [899], Uganda K001156844
    Smith, H. [911], Kenya K001156872
    Phipps, J.B. [1194], Zimbabwe K001158450
    Brummitt, R.K. [15624], Malawi K001158373
    Brummitt, R.K. [9071], Malawi K001158374
    Brummitt, R.K. [15162], Malawi K001158375
    Brummitt, R.K. [10113], Malawi K001158380
    Brummitt, R.K. [9587], Malawi K001158383
    Brummitt, R.K. [15198], Malawi K001158384
    Brummitt, R.K. [18526F], Malawi K001158389
    Cribb, P. [11251], Tanzania K001156946
    Cribb, P. [11261], Tanzania K001156947
    Cribb, P. [11440], Tanzania K001156948
    Germain, R. [3981], Congo K001155873
    Germain, R. [3982], Congo K001155885
    Semsei [3956], Tanzania K001156912
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9790], Cameroon K000028612
    Leeuwenberg, A.J.M. [9526], Cameroon K000028613
    Mogg, A.O.D. [30267], South Africa K001158993
    Richards, M. [20346], Tanzania K001156799
    Richards, M. [23399], Tanzania K001156822
    Richards, M. [20346], Tanzania K001156823
    Richards, M. [20365], Tanzania K001156824
    Schweinfurth, G. [3280] K001156050
    Wilson, J. [1723], Uganda K001156937
    Wilson, J. [660], Uganda K001156938
    Wood, J.R.I. [2388], Yemen K001152065
    Wood, J.R.I. [2599], Yemen K001152067
    Wood, J.R.I. [2554], Yemen K001152068
    Wood, J.R.I. [2553], Yemen K001152069
    Wood, J.R.I. [2559], Yemen K001152070
    Chapman, J.D. [4342], Nigeria K001155694
    Chapman, J.D. [1220], Malawi K001158386
    Chapman, J.D. [1895], Malawi K001158403
    Verdcourt [2962], Kenya K001156888
    Verdcourt [980], Kenya K001156985
    Fay, J.M. [5429], Central African Republic K000489475
    Fay, J.M. [126], Central African Republic K000489474
    Friis, I. [10053], Ethiopia K001156044
    Friis, I. [339], Sudan K001156046
    Friis, I. [8831], Ethiopia K001156061
    Friis, I. [12548], Ethiopia K001156066
    Friis, I. [9829], Ethiopia K001156067
    Friis, I. [9830], Ethiopia K001156068
    Lucas, G.L. [110], Kenya K001156919
    Lucas, G.L. [110], Kenya K001156920
    Galpin, E.E. [10092], South Africa K001158999
    Miller, O.B. [3773], Zimbabwe K001158442
    Hall, J.B. [2330], Ghana K000489405
    Hall, J.B. [3032] K001155693
    Archbold, M.E. [2472], Tanzania K001157003
    Faden, R.B. [74/a197], Kenya K001156883
    Faden, R.B. [68/814], Kenya K001156890
    Faden, R.B. [518], Kenya K001156922
    Faden, R.B. [45], Kenya K001156923
    Faden, R.B. [67/641], Kenya K001156976
    Faden, R.B. [77/864], Kenya K001156981
    Ash, J.W. [242], Ethiopia K001156056
    Carter [2320], Tanzania K001156995
    Verdcourt, B. [1133], Kenya K001156879
    Verdcourt, B. [1133] K001156886
    Thulin, M. [2741], Tanzania K001157008
    Hooper, S.S. [529], Congo K001155861
    Brummit, R.K. [10658], Malawi K001158393
    Brummit, R.K. [11925], Malawi K001158399
    Brummit, R.K. [10885], Malawi K001158400
    Brummit, R.K. [WC74], Malawi K001158401
    Brummit, R.K. [13747], Zambia K001158430
    Lewalle, J. [839], Burundi K001155888
    Lewalle, J. [299], Burundi K001155889
    Lock, J.M. [83/101], Kenya K001156924
    Hedberg, O. [279], Kenya K001156897
    Wild, H. [3677], Zimbabwe K001158436
    Wild, H. [2053], Zimbabwe K001158438
    Wild, H. [44893], Zimbabwe K001158440
    Dowsett-Lemaire, F. [127a], Malawi K001158396
    Hall [47107], Ghana K000489403
    Hall [47109], Ghana K000489410
    Hall [47108], Ghana K000489426
    Hall [47106], Ghana K000489427
    Hall [47107], Ghana K000489428
    Ruffo [2241], Tanzania K001156802
    Lovett, J. [1533], Tanzania K001156910
    Williams, L. [95], Ghana K000489408
    Semsei, S.R. [4149], Tanzania K001156797
    Semsei, S.R. [3948], Tanzania K001156798
    Semsei, S.R. [4118], Tanzania K001156800
    Bidgood, S. [373], Tanzania K001156954
    Goyder, D.J. [3174], Malawi K001158381
    Lovett, J.C. [1504], Tanzania K001156955
    Lovett, J.C. [721], Tanzania K001156993
    Bytebier, B. [13], Kenya K001156905
    Welwitsch [6038], Angola K001029797
    Richards, H.M. [7148], Tanzania K001156810
    Richards, H.M. [8475], Tanzania K001156811
    Richards, H.M. [10620], Malawi K001158398
    Richards, H.M. [1014], Zambia K001158423
    Richards, H.M. [4677], Zambia K001158426
    Richards, H.M. [19014], Zambia K001158427
    Richards, H.M. [4262], Zambia K001158429
    Harley, G.W. [s.n.], Liberia K000489396
    Humbert, H. [16181], Angola K001029801
    Luke, W.R.Q. [7716], Tanzania K001156960
    Luke, W.R.Q. [8043], Tanzania K001156998
    Breteler, F.J. [308], Cameroon K001155850
    Vogel [s.n.] K001155700
    Linder, D.H. [550], Liberia K000489394
    Linder, D.H. [655], Liberia K000489397
    Bruce, E.M. [110], Tanzania K001157004
    Bruce, E.M. [465], Tanzania K001157006
    Baron, R. [308], Madagascar K000212272
    Polhill, R.M. [1457], Tanzania K001156953
    Polhill, R.M. [1457], Tanzania K001156957
    Polhill, R.M. [172], Kenya K001156977
    Polhill, R.M. [1428], Tanzania K001156991
    Grimshaw, J.M. [JMG94410], Tanzania K001156817
    Grimshaw, J.M. [JMG94431], Tanzania K001156818
    Grimshaw, J.M. [JMG94431], Tanzania K001156826
    Bojer [s.n.], Madagascar K001158899
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Liberia K000489398
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001156849
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Kenya K001156870
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001156971
    Whyte, A. [s.n.], Uganda K001156983
    Iversen, S.T. [87566], Tanzania K001156992
    Tadesse, M. [2346], Ethiopia K001156063
    Perdue, R.E. [9276], Kenya K001156871
    Perdue, R.E. [9089], Kenya K001156874
    Perdue, R.E. [8118], Kenya K001156987
    Perdue, R.E. [11165], Tanzania K001157000
    Perdue, R.E. [11563], Tanzania K001157002
    Mwangangi, O.M. [375], Kenya K001156866
    Mwangangi, O.M. [229], Kenya K001156889
    Gereau, R.E. [4448], Tanzania K001156952
    Gereau, R.E. [4515], Tanzania K001156956
    Gereau, R.E. [4919], Tanzania K001156970
    Gereau, R.E. [4228], Tanzania K001157007
    Tessmann, G. [311], Equatorial Guinea K001155864
    Dümmer, R. [107], Uganda K001156839
    Herlocker, D. [203], Tanzania K001156820
    Dummer, R.A. [4436], Uganda K001156969
    Lugard, E.J. [291], Kenya K001156875
    Lebrun [5014], Congo K001155858
    Forester [2], South Africa K001158994
    Simon, B.K. [1674], Zambia K001158406
    Simon, B.K. [1348], Zimbabwe K001158434
    Goldsmith, B. [133/62], Zambia K001158433
    Mutimushi, J.M. [2483], Zambia K001158408
    Mutimushi, J.M. [2119], Zambia K001158418
    Lebrun, J. [9485], Congo K001155857
    Lebrun, J. [8542], Congo K001155859
    Lebrun, J. [9308], Congo K001155862
    Lebrun, J. [9184], Congo K001155877
    Lebrun, J. [8271], Congo K001155878
    Lebrun, J. [7169], Congo K001155879
    Lebrun, J. [911], Congo K001155883
    Thomas, N.W. [3677], Sierra Leone K000489389
    Thomas, N.W. [7321], Sierra Leone K000489391
    Thomas, N.W. [1630], Nigeria K000489422
    Thomas, N.W. [s.n.], Nigeria K000489424
    Thomas, N.W. [1750], Nigeria K001155695
    Thomas, N.W. [463], Nigeria K001155696
    Tisserant, R.P. [1819], Central African Republic K000489477
    Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2571] K001156060
    Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2565] K001156072
    Pichi-Sermolli, R. [2573] K001156075
    Pawek, J. [2112], Malawi K001158387
    Pawek, J. [2015], Malawi K001158391
    Pawek, J. [6431], Malawi K001158394
    Pawek, J. [5101], Malawi K001158397
    Pawek, J. [4037], Malawi K001158402
    Devred, R. [802], Congo, DRC K000489481
    Devred, R. [3890], Congo K001155860
    Newbould, J.B. [6479], Tanzania K001156825
    Bos, J.J. [1059], South Africa K001158989
    Irvine, F.R. [556], Ghana K000489409
    Irvine, F.R. [4770], Ghana K000489411
    Irvine, F.R. [1770], Ghana K000489415
    Foster, E.W. [332], Nigeria K001155697
    Ralimanana, H. [RLI 836], Madagascar K000663104
    Ralimanana, H. [RLI 836], Madagascar K001158898
    Frame, G.W. [41], Tanzania K001156816
    Mgaza, C.D. [648], Tanzania K001156805
    Mavi, S. [1430] K001158437
    Mavi, S. [727], Zimbabwe K001158451
    Loveridge, M.V. [464], Uganda K001156845
    Loveridge, M.V. [96], Uganda K001156850
    Hossain [37952], Ghana K000489412
    Guinea, E. [2256] K001155692
    Guinea, E. [1746] K001155701
    Holland, J.H. [188], Nigeria K000489429
    Casas, F. [11491], Equatorial Guinea K001155868
    Casas, F. [11946], Equatorial Guinea K001155869
    Casas, F. [10428], Equatorial Guinea K001155870
    Casas, F. [11225], Equatorial Guinea K001155871
    Kennedy, J.D. [2325], Nigeria K000489418
    Tamajong, S. [FHI 23484], Cameroon K000028619
    Brown, J.W. [320], Ghana K000489407
    Shabani [689], Tanzania K001156806
    Shabani [573], Tanzania K001156807
    Lye, K.A. [1157], Uganda K001156940
    Millson, A. [s.n.], Nigeria K000489425
    Wellby, M.S. [s.n.] K001156832
    Geilinger, W. [1987], Tanzania K001156996
    Reekmans, M. [10.010], Burundi K001155890
    Reekmans, M. [7202], Burundi K001155891
    Reekmans, M. [8096], Burundi K001155892
    Salubeni, A.J. [1393A], Malawi K001158385
    Teague, A.J. [569], Zimbabwe K001158447
    Carmichael, W. [18], Tanzania K001156965
    Carmichael, W. [2], Tanzania K001156968
    Leliyo, G. [250], Tanzania K001156997
    Gerard, P. [785], Congo K001155882
    Maitland, J.D. [s.n.], Uganda K001156840
    Maitland, J.D. [1217], Uganda K001156841
    Maitland, J.D. [1213], Uganda K001156842
    Sanane, M. [362], Tanzania K001158422
    Sanane, M. [957], Zambia K001158424
    Sanane, M. [958], Zambia K001158425
    Sanane, M. [987], Zambia K001158431
    Sanane, M. [1469], Zambia K001158432
    Sapin, A. [s.n.] K001155865
    Sapin, A. [s.n.] K001155866
    Kerfoot, O. [2457], Kenya K001156896
    Kerfoot, O. [2630], Kenya K001156901
    Kerfoot, O. [4721], Kenya K001156917
    Kerfoot, O. [2443], Kenya K001156918
    Kerfoot, O. [4060], Kenya K001156972
    Kerfoot, O. [4721], Kenya K001156973
    Kerfoot, O. [2821], Kenya K001156974
    Kerfoot, O. [4720], Kenya K001156984
    Kerfoot, O. [3879], Kenya K001156986
    Kerfoot, O. [1544], Tanzania K001157001
    Phillips, E. [2848], Malawi K001158388
    Phillips, E. [4015], Malawi K001158390
    Phillips, E. [3883], Malawi K001158392
    Phillips, E. [4614], Malawi K001158395
    Wilde, W.J.J.O. de [2558], Cameroon K001155852
    Compere, P. [751], Congo, DRC K000489480
    Paulo, S. [980], Kenya K001156925
    Paulo, S. [530], Kenya K001156982
    Koning, J. de [7483], Mozambique K001158369
    Lindsay, R.S. [174], Kenya K001156926
    Katende, A.B. [957], Uganda K001156831
    Katende, A.B. [s.n.], Uganda K001156833
    Gilliland, H.B. [2619a], Zimbabwe K001158444
    D.B.F. [F689], Zambia K001158413
    D.B.F. [4944], Zambia K001158416
    Oteke, J. [55], Kenya K001156899
    Oteke, J. [58], Kenya K001156902
    Oteke, J. [55], Kenya K001156904
    Barbosa, G. [9162], Angola K001029796
    Patel, I.H. [1009], Malawi K001158372
    Noel, A.R.A. [2344], Zimbabwe K001158443
    Best, E.B. [1315], Zimbabwe K001158449
    Blackmore, S. [1392], Malawi K001158382
    Rushworth, J.E. [1014], Zimbabwe K001158453
    Silva, M. da [2859], Angola K001029799
    Kisena [400], Tanzania K001156808
    Shabani, S. [435], Tanzania K001156803
    Thiebaud, A. [786], Congo K001155881
    Harrison [7290] K001155698
    Linley, K. [91], Zambia K001158417
    Katende, T. [1150] K001156857
    Mbale, M. [NMK830], Kenya K001156975
    Hemp, A. [5032], Tanzania K001156819
    Patel, H. [s.n.], Mozambique K000614351
    Tiyoy, L. [1310] K001156851
    Tiyoy, L. [75], Uganda K001156945
    Wit, P. [66741], Nigeria K000489419
    Luke, WRQ [10813], Kenya K001156894
    Price, D. [WK69], Tanzania K001156958
    Price, D. [DA136], Tanzania K001156959
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [10522], Tanzania K001156961
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [8084], Tanzania K001156962
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [8084], Tanzania K001156963
    Arnstein Lye, K. [1951], Uganda K001156846
    Arnstein Lye, K. [6948], Uganda K001156864
    Drummond, R.B. [3434], Tanzania K001156794
    Drummond, R.B. [3434], Tanzania K001156795
    Drummond, R.B. [5113], Zimbabwe K001158439
    Clarke, C.B. [s.n.] K001156964
    Cree, C.S. [C26], Uganda K001156861
    Yamada, T. [10], Congo, DRC K000489478
    Purseglove, J.W. [P2568], Uganda K001156852
    Purseglove, J.W. [P2569], Uganda K001156941
    Purseglove, J.W. [P3148], Uganda K001156942
    Purseglove, J.W. [P900], Uganda K001156943
    Horlyck, V. [TZ317], Tanzania K001156911
    s.coll [720] K001168325
    s.coll [13] K001155699
    s.coll [s.n.], Luxembourg K001155702
    s.coll [514], Congo K001155855
    s.coll [533], Congo K001155856
    s.coll [9518], Cameroon K001155863
    s.coll [5135], Congo K001155874
    s.coll [15], Tanzania K001156814
    s.coll [P900], Uganda K001156834
    s.coll [3148], Uganda K001156835
    s.coll [282], Uganda K001156837
    s.coll [52], Uganda K001156838
    s.coll [4025], Uganda K001156847
    s.coll [1940] K001156848
    s.coll [P2040], Uganda K001156853
    s.coll [227], Uganda K001156855
    s.coll [1961], Uganda K001156856
    s.coll [571], Uganda K001156858
    s.coll [1562], Uganda K001156862
    s.coll [D38], Uganda K001156863
    s.coll [1961], Uganda K001156865
    s.coll [s.n.], Uganda K001156936
    s.coll [7253], Tanzania K001156966
    s.coll [7253], Tanzania K001156967
    s.coll [35], Tanzania K001156999
    s.coll [1159], Zimbabwe K001158446
    s.coll [481], Zimbabwe K001158454
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001158996
    s.coll [564], South Africa K001159000
    Bennett [33], Nigeria K000489420
    s.coll. [2219], Nigeria K000489421
    Bequaert, J.C.C. [1138] K001155867
    Mshana, H. [67], Tanzania K001156796
    Fayad, C. [129], Kenya K001156990
    Issa [13], Tanzania K001156809
    Thomas, A. [H4281], Uganda K001156843
    Thomas, A. [4471], Uganda K001156854
    Wit, HCD de [2967], Ghana K000489413
    Ofermain, R. [61], Congo, DRC K000489479
    Burgt, X.M. van der [1036], Guinea K001061411
    Swarbrick, J. T. [2373], Cameroon K000028616
    Sebald, O. [2595], Ethiopia K001156039
    Richards, M.A.E. [13012], Tanzania K001156812
    Richards, M.A.E. [129], Zambia K001158421
    Richards, M.A.E. [4262], Zambia K001158428
    Stewart, R.B. [B-20], Ethiopia K001156070
    Henlocker, D. [H226], Kenya K001156891
    Garcia [540], Mozambique K001158370
    Mabatha, F.W. [2395], South Africa K001158990
    Mabatha, F.W. [2395], South Africa K001158991
    Acres, B. [1P], Yemen K001152061
    Acres, B. [427], Yemen K001152062
    Spillenberg, R. [7418], Yemen K001152063
    Couta, C. [173], Angola K001029794
    Herb Dechamps, R. [1044], Angola K001029795
    Herb Raynal, J. [20332] K001155872
    Herb Troupin, G. [4785], Rwanda K001155886
    Herb Troupin, G. [4963], Rwanda K001155887
    Cooper, O.J. [s.n.], Ethiopia K001156074
    Ngomdai [97], Tanzania K001156801
    Dallad, G.B. [1129], Tanzania K001156828
    Leone, I. [16], Tanzania K001156829
    Thomas, H. [4195], Uganda K001156830
    Polhill, E.A. [12008], Kenya K001156880
    Kokwaro, J. [334], Kenya K001156882
    Kirika, E. [480], Kenya K001156885
    Nyamongo, D.O. [GBK13], Kenya K001156892
    Teke, J.O. [58], Kenya K001156893
    Nyamongo, DO. [GBK14], Kenya K001156895
    Charelles, O. [1241], Uganda K001156929
    Goode, G.M. [G4/72], Uganda K001156932
    Chanecllor, R.B. [199], Uganda K001156935
    Shlaer-Thompson, G.W. [1235], Uganda K001156944
    Ruffo, M.F.R. [1583], Tanzania K001156949
    Mattienge, S.G. [195], Kenya K001156979
    Leynes, H. [56], Tanzania K001156994
    Sensei, S.R. [1986], Kenya K001157005
    Whyte, F.L.S. [s.n.], Malawi K001158377
    Goodies, R. [161], Zimbabwe K001158435
    Mullin, L. [37/56], Zimbabwe K001158445
    Vuuren, D.J.R. van [1465], South Africa K001158992
    Label [s.n.], South Africa K001158995
    Müller, P.J. [74], South Africa K001158997
    Nkuna, A. [647], South Africa K001158998
    McCallum, D.A. [1001], South Africa K001159001
    Dec 27, 1947 Schimper [1129], Ethiopia Solanum indicum subsp. mesodolichum K000414021 isotype
    Rudatis, H. [480], South Africa Solanum urosepalum K000405944 isotype
    Feb 1, 2000 Munyenyembe, P. [783], Cameroon Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K000339163
    Onochie, C.F.A. [40291], Nigeria Solanum indicum subsp. distichum 17713.000
    Deighton, F.C. [5469], Sierra Leone Solanum indicum subsp. distichum 16340.000
    Dalziel, J.M. [723], Nigeria Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K001169038
    Hepper, F.N. [1707], Cameroon Solanum indicum subsp. distichum 17714.000
    Baldwin, J.T. [12102], USA Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K001169036
    Morton, J.K. [A3176] Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K001169037
    Tallantire, A. [672], Uganda Solanum indicum subsp. distichum 23860.000
    Schweinfurth, G. [3175], Sudan Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K000414023
    Schlechter, F.R.R. [13004], Sierra Leone Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K000414048 isosyntype
    Tallantire, A.C. [T672] Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K001169040
    Scott-Ellist [4898], Sierra Leone Solanum indicum subsp. distichum K001169035
    Dalziel, J.M. [723], Nigeria Solanum scalare 16343.000
    Hubbard, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum sodomeum K001150891
    Hubbard, C.E. [s.n.], United Kingdom Solanum sodomeum K001150892
    Hepper, F.N. [4575], Sri Lanka Solanum sodomeum 35170.000
    Martindale, G.E. [39], Spain Solanum sodomeum K001150880
    Clark, J.S., United Kingdom Solanum sodomeum 26592.000
    Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Morocco Solanum sodomeum K000650955
    Bourgeau, E. [352], Spain Solanum sodomeum K001150868
    Bourgeau, E. [2779], Spain Solanum sodomeum K001150883
    Bourgeau, E. [2779], Spain Solanum sodomeum K001150884
    Prior, A. [s.n.], Italy Solanum sodomeum K001150895
    Joad, G.C. [2] Solanum sodomeum K001150863
    Forsyth-Major, C.I. [H292-32], France Solanum sodomeum K001150877
    Hurst, H.A. [s.n.], Spain Solanum sodomeum K000650956
    Fiori, A. [57], Italy Solanum sodomeum K001150894
    Atchley, S.C. [1356] Solanum sodomeum K001150872
    Porta, P. [200], Italy Solanum sodomeum K001150887
    Edmonds, M.E. [180], Spain Solanum sodomeum K001150882
    Ellman, E. [515], Spain Solanum sodomeum K001150890
    Todaro, A. [683] Solanum sodomeum K001150888
    Strobl, P.G. [s.n.] Solanum sodomeum K001150889
    Bornmüller, J.F.N. [530], Italy Solanum sodomeum K001150867
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum sodomeum K000650952
    s.coll [27] Solanum sodomeum K000650953
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum sodomeum K000650954
    s.coll [s.n.] Solanum sodomeum K001150864
    s.coll [s.n.], Italy Solanum sodomeum K001150865
    s.coll [26] Solanum sodomeum K001150871
    s.coll [s.n.], Croatia Solanum sodomeum K001150873
    s.coll [5], France Solanum sodomeum K001150876
    s.coll [1265] Solanum sodomeum K001150878
    s.coll [s.n.], Italy Solanum sodomeum K001150879
    s.coll [H240127] Solanum sodomeum K001150881
    s.coll [407A], Malta Solanum sodomeum K001150885
    s.coll [H1311/24], Greece Solanum sodomeum K001150893
    Müller [s.n.] Solanum sodomeum K000650951
    Herb Gay, J. [s.n.], Luxembourg Solanum sodomeum K001150869
    Huet du Pavillon, É. [15] Solanum sodomeum K000650957
    Wolfe, T.B. [? [s.n.], Italy Solanum sodomeum K001150866
    Arcangeli, G. [s.n.] Solanum sodomeum K001150870
    Mabille, J.P. [65], France Solanum sodomeum K001150874
    Wyatt, C.H. [73], France Solanum sodomeum K001150875
    Herb Graelsianum [s.n.] Solanum sodomeum K001150886

    Bibliography

    First published in Tabl. Encycl. 2: 23 (1794)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Knüpffer & Ochsmann (eds.), Schriften Genet. Ressourcen 22: 137 (2003).
    • White, Dowsett-Lemaire & Chapman, Evergreen For. Fl. Malawi: 553 (2001).
    • Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Fl., ed. 2: 243 (1994).
    • D'Arcy, Solanac. Biol. & Syst.: 433, 435–436, 446–447, 450–451, 452, 453–454, t. 31/1,4, fig. 31/5 (1986).
    • D'Arcy, Solanac. Biol. & Syst.: 50 (1986).
    • Fl. Rwanda 3: 376, fig. 120/2 (1985) as “anguivii”.
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 222 (1984).
    • Troupin, Fl. Pl. Lign. Rwanda: 654, 656, fig. 227/2 (1982)
    • Hawkes et al., Biol. & Taxon. Solanac.: 133 (1979).
    • J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 76: 290–291, 288 (fig. 1/B) (1978) saltem pro parte quoad aream geogr. Afr. Trop. et excl. syn. S. violaceum Ort.
    • A. de Candolle, Prodr. 13, 1: 308 (1852).
    • Tabl. Encycl. 2: 23 (1794).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Grierson, A.J.C. & Long, D.G. (2001). Flora of Bhutan 2: 1-1675. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 129, fig. 158.11.10–13 (2006).
    • F.Z. 8(4): 93 (2005)
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 190, t. 590 (1992)
    • Tabl. Encycl. 2: 23 (1794)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0