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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum catombelense Peyr.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    Type
    Type from Angola.
    General
    Erect to spreading perennial herb or small shrub to 1. 2 m, rather sparsely armed or occasionally unarmed; sympodia difoliate; hairs stellate, sessile or shortly stalked, with long to short rays, with sometimes a longer or shorter central ray; prickles yellowish to brownish, glossy, short, straight, subulate, or somewhat recurved, ± stellate-hairy to quite glabrous
    Branches
    Branches whitish to greyish or yellowish to brownish or purplish-greenish tomentose, tardily glabrescent, almost always with at least a few scattered prickles Branches whitish to greyish or yellowish to brownish or purplish-greenish tomentose, tardily glabrescent, almost always with at least a few scattered prickles.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary, the upper ones occasionally appearing geminate; petiole (0.3)1–3(4) cm long; lamina ± membranous, (0.9)1. 5–8.5 × (0.5)0.8–4.5 cm, oblong, narrowly elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, base rounded to attenuate and subequal or oblique, more rarely somewhat decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or ± rounded, ± entire to sinuate-lobed, the lobes ± triangular or ovate-triangular, apically rounded or obtuse, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, tomentose, paler beneath, unarmed or with very few short prickles mostly on the midrib Leaves solitary, the upper ones occasionally appearing geminate; petiole (0.3)1–3(4) cm long; lamina ± membranous, (0.9)1.5–8.5 × (0.5)0.8–4.5 cm, oblong, narrowly elliptic or ovate to lanceolate, base rounded to attenuate and subequal or oblique, more rarely somewhat decurrent into the petiole, apex obtuse or ± rounded, ± entire to sinuate-lobed, the lobes ± triangular or ovate-triangular, apically rounded or obtuse, the sinuses rounded between the lobes, tomentose, paler beneath, unarmed or with very few short prickles mostly on the midrib.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, ± leaf-remote, short, unbranched, very rarely once forked, racemiform, corymbiform or sub-umbelliform, 2–7(10)-flowered, tomentose, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile, sometimes flowers solitary; peduncle 0–1 cm long, unarmed or scarcely prickly, in fruit elongated to 1. 5 cm; pedicels 3–13 mm long, slender, thickened and occasionally shortly prickly distally, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 15 mm, stouter, drooping to reflexed Cymes lateral, ± leaf-remote, short, unbranched, very rarely once forked, racemiform, corymbiform or sub-umbelliform, 2–7(10)-flowered, tomentose, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile, sometimes flowers solitary; peduncle 0–1 cm long, unarmed or scarcely prickly, in fruit elongated to 1.5 cm; pedicels 3–13 mm long, slender, thickened and occasionally shortly prickly distally, erect or ± curved, in fruit elongated to 15 mm, stouter, drooping to reflexed.
    Flowers
    Flowers (4)5(6)-merous Flowers (4)5(6)-merous.
    Calyx
    Calyx tomentose, unarmed or ± prickly mainly near the base; tube 1–2 mm long, campanulate or cupular; lobes ± unequal, 1. 5–3.5(5) × 1–1. 5(2) mm, ovate to linear-lanceolate, somewhat obtuse or acutish and somewhat recurved, in fruit elongated to 6 × 3.5 mm, weakly ± appressed to it Calyx tomentose, unarmed or ± prickly mainly near the base; tube 1–2 mm long, campanulate or cupular; lobes ± unequal, 1.5–3.5(5) × 1–1.5(2) mm, ovate to linear-lanceolate, somewhat obtuse or acutish and somewhat recurved, in fruit elongated to 6 × 3.5 mm, weakly ± appressed to it.
    Corolla
    Corolla milky-white to purple or violet, (6)8–10(12) mm across, rotate to stelliform; tube 1. 5–3 mm long; lobes 3–5.5 × 1. 5–3 mm, oblong to narrowly triangular or lanceolate, acute or acuminate and often cucullate, densely hairy from the median region to the apex outside, and with a few stellate hairs along the midrib inside Corolla milky-white to purple or violet, (6)8–10(12) mm across, rotate to stelliform; tube 1.5–3 mm long; lobes 3–5.5 × 1.5–3 mm, oblong to narrowly triangular or lanceolate, acute or acuminate and often cucullate, densely hairy from the median region to the apex outside, and with a few stellate hairs along the midrib inside.
    Stamens
    Stamens filaments 0.3–0.6 mm long; anthers 3–4.5 mm long, elliptic to linear or ± lanceolate in outline, emarginate at both ends, ± straight Stamens filaments 0.3–0.6 mm long; anthers 3–4.5 mm long, elliptic to linear or ± lanceolate in outline, emarginate at both ends, ± straight.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1–1. 5 mm in diameter, ± globose or ovoid, hairy usually on the upper half.
    Style
    Style 4.5–7(7.5) mm long, capillaceous, recurved in the upper half or only at the apex, hairy on the lower half or to near the apex
    Fruits
    Fruit at first light green with dark green pattern, green, dirty olivaceous green or sulphur-coloured, soon turning yellow, orange to deep red, glossy, sometimes blackish with age, (5)6–10(12) mm in diameter, globose, with a few scattered stellate hairs or ± glabrous, fleshy and edible when mature, drying with chartaceous walls Fruit at first light green with dark green pattern, green, dirty olivaceous green or sulphur-coloured, soon turning yellow, orange to deep red, glossy, sometimes blackish with age, (5)6–10(12) mm in diameter, globose, with a few scattered stellate hairs or ± glabrous, fleshy and edible when mature, drying with chartaceous walls.
    Ecology
    Coastal forest, mopane, Acacia and mixed woodland and wooded grassland, riverine associations, rocky outcrops, overgrazed and disturbed places; up to 1300 m.
    Note
    Compared to S. anguivi, which occurs only further north, this is a relatively uniform species, characterized by the essentially elliptic-oblong, slightly to moderately lobed leaves and few-flowered cymes, maturing on deflexed pedicels only 1–3 yellow to red fruits, which almost always retain a few hairs at the apex. The Mozambique material has longer, straight, more subulate prickles, like the material down the east side of South Africa, whereas that from inland has short, slightly curved prickles, sometimes rather sparse. The two forms meet on the Zoutpansberg in the Limpopo Province of South Africa.
    Distribution
    Also in Angola, Namibia, South Africa (Limpopo, North-West, Mpumalanga, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and Northern Cape Provinces) and Swaziland. BOT N, BOT SW, BOT SE, ZIM W, ZIM S, MOZ GI, MOZ M Mozambique Botswana.
    Habit
    Erect to spreading perennial herb or small shrub to 1.2 m, rather sparsely armed or occasionally unarmed; sympodia difoliate; hairs stellate, sessile or shortly stalked, with long to short rays, with sometimes a longer or shorter central ray; prickles yellowish to brownish, glossy, short, straight, subulate, or somewhat recurved, ± stellate-hairy to quite glabrous.
    Pistil
    Ovary 1–1.5 mm in diameter, ± globose or ovoid, hairy usually on the upper half; style 4.5–7(7.5) mm long, capillaceous, recurved in the upper half or only at the apex, hairy on the lower half or to near the apex.
    Seeds
    Seeds pale yellowish to brownish, ± glossy, 2.5–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, lenticular-reniform to discoid, somewhat to minute-reticulate all over. Seeds pale yellowish to brownish, ± glossy, 2.5–3.5 × 2.5–3 mm, lenticular-reniform to discoid, somewhat to minute-reticulate all over

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Cape Provinces, Free State, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum catombelense Peyr. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2010 Drummond, R.B. [7655], Zimbabwe K000441831
    Oct 1, 2010 Story, R. [4872], Botswana K000441827
    Oct 1, 2010 Davies, R. [1223], Zimbabwe K000441832
    Oct 1, 2010 Wild, H. [2145], Zimbabwe K000441833
    Oct 1, 2010 Campbell, J. [Peterhouse154], Botswana K000441825
    Oct 1, 2010 Smith, P.P. [15], Botswana K000441824
    Oct 1, 2010 Schafer, P.A. [7284], Mozambique K000441829
    Oct 1, 2010 Smith, P.A. [3015], Botswana K000441822
    Oct 1, 2010 Ngoni, J.F. [480], Botswana K000441819
    Oct 1, 2010 Ngoni, J.F. [296], Botswana K000441823
    Oct 1, 2010 Jansen, P.C.M. [PJ7654], Mozambique K000441830
    Oct 1, 2010 Brown, R.C. [s.n.], Botswana K000441820
    Oct 1, 2010 Harbor, C.C. [6422], Botswana K000441821
    Oct 1, 2010 Farrington, B. [MSB294], Botswana K000441828
    Oct 1, 2010 Kabelo, M. [MSB175], Botswana K000441826
    Oct 1, 2010 Feiertag, H.J. [45473], Zimbabwe K000441834
    Sep 1, 2010 Codd, L.E. [4987], South Africa K000441737
    Sep 1, 2010 Moll, E.J. [4971], South Africa K000441744
    Sep 1, 2010 Compton, R.H. [29884], Swaziland K000441741
    Sep 1, 2010 Liebenberg, L.C.C. [S118], South Africa K000441733
    Sep 1, 2010 Nation, O. [181], South Africa K000441735
    Sep 1, 2010 Balkwill, K. [11677b], South Africa K000441738
    Sep 1, 2010 Winter, B. de [5469], Namibia K000441729
    Sep 1, 2010 Potgieter, J.A. [193], Namibia K000441728
    Sep 1, 2010 Vuuren, D.V. [1171], Namibia K000441730
    Sep 1, 2010 Sheuyange, T. [49], Namibia K000441731
    Sep 1, 2010 Reid, C. [1077], South Africa K000441742
    Sep 1, 2010 Acocks, J.P.H. [20925], South Africa K000441734
    Sep 1, 2010 Acocks, J.P.H. [13906], South Africa K000441736
    Sep 1, 2010 Acocks, J.P.H. [1885], South Africa K000441740
    Sep 1, 2010 Schyff, H.R. [1254], South Africa K000441732
    Sep 1, 2010 Morris, J.W. [703], South Africa K000441743
    Sep 1, 2010 Brueckner, A. [407], South Africa K000441739
    May 17, 2010 Ward, C.J. [10532], Namibia K000441656
    May 17, 2010 Seydel, R. [1508], Namibia K000441658
    May 17, 2010 Seydel, R. [1009], Namibia K000441659
    May 17, 2010 Seydel, R. [719], Namibia K000441660
    May 17, 2010 Kolberg, H.H. [HK934], Namibia K000441655
    May 17, 2010 Kolberg, H.H. [HK1098], Namibia K000441657
    Sep 1, 1992 Rautanen [726], South Africa K000426007 Unknown type material
    Story, R. [5954], South Africa K001159178
    Leach, L.C. [197], Botswana K001158594
    Strey, R.G. [7407], South Africa K001159163
    Wild, H. [5040], Botswana K001158590
    Wild, H. [5388], Zimbabwe K001158600
    Goyder, D.J. [5078], Mozambique K000738794
    Welwitsch [6077], Angola K000414091 Unknown type material
    Welwitsch [6048], Angola K000414092 Unknown type material
    Richards, H.M. [14640], Botswana K001158598
    Dinter [6906] K001159170
    Brown, R. [7892], Botswana K001158586
    Sutton, J.D. [767], South Africa K001159182
    Wilman, M. [4643] K001159175
    Henriques, J.A. [116], Angola K001159173
    Mavi, S. [237], Zimbabwe K001158599
    Balsinhas, A. [3568], South Africa K001159179
    Ngoni, J.F. [437], Botswana K001158589
    Winter, B. de [7340], Botswana K001158584
    Coetzee, B.J. [1042], South Africa K001159167
    Brown, R.C. [7592], Botswana K001158595
    Mott, P.J. [336], Botswana K001158596
    Kolberg, H. [HK914], Namibia K001159172
    Skarpe, C. [S-313], Botswana K001158593
    Skarpe, C. [S-248], Botswana K001158597
    Terry, J. [214], Botswana K001158585
    Terry, J. [214], Botswana K001158592
    Cox, T.J. [317], Botswana K001158588
    s.coll [7592], Botswana K001158583
    s.coll [6015], Botswana K001158591
    s.coll [116], Angola K001159171
    s.coll [s.n.], South Africa K001159180
    s.coll [A.442], South Africa K001159181
    Codd, L.E.W. [4987], South Africa K001159165
    Codd, L.E.W. [2592], South Africa K001159169
    Codd, L.E.W. [4843], South Africa K001159183
    Codd, L.E.W. [4843], South Africa K001159184
    Allen, A. [257], Botswana K001158587
    Mukoma, T. [852], South Africa K001159164
    Macnae, M. [s.n.], South Africa K001159166
    Schyff, K.R. van de [2045], South Africa K001159168
    Batthard [2672] K001159174
    Parker, A. [s.n.] K001159176
    Batthans [205] K001159177

    Bibliography

    First published in Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 38: 576 (1860)

    Accepted by

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Merxmüller, Prodr. Fl. SW. Afrika, fam. 124: 11, 13 (1969). TAB. 19.
    • Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 16: 91 (1923).
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 222 (1906).
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 748 (1898).
    • Sitz.-Ber. Math.-Nat. Akad. Wiss. Wien 38: 576 (1860).

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/