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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum chrysotrichum Schltdl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Central America.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 8, Part 4. Solanaceae. Gonçalves AE. 2005

    General
    Shrub or small tree up to 7.5 m, armed, but flowering branches sometimes unarmed; hairs stellate, ± long stalked to sessile, ± irregular, sometimes with a rather shorter or longer central ray, sometimes bristle-like; prickles reddish-brown to dark purple, 2–8(9) mm long and 1–8 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed and wide towards the base, stout, straight or recurved, subulate upwards, striate, often basally pubescent
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lateral, extra-axillary or axillary, at first appearing terminal, unbranched, once-forked or more-branched, racemiform, sometimes scorpioid or corymbiform, 4–10 cm long, 4–9 cm across, congested, many-flowered, tomentose or hispid with rusty-red hairs, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile; peduncle 0.6–3 cm long, stout Cymes lateral, extra-axillary or axillary, at first appearing terminal, unbranched, once-forked or more-branched, racemiform, sometimes scorpioid or corymbiform, 4–10 cm long, 4–9 cm across, congested, many-flowered, tomentose or hispid with rusty-red hairs, all flowers hermaphrodite and fertile; peduncle 0.6–3 cm long, stout.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5(6)-merous. Flowers 5(6)-merous; pedicels 0.8–1.2 cm long, stout, tomentose or hispid, sometimes glandular, and also with a few simple hairs intermixed, in fruit elongated to 1.5 cm, erect and stouter, with marked corky thickenings towards the point of attachment.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels 0.8–1. 2 cm long, stout, tomentose or hispid, sometimes glandular, and also with a few simple hairs intermixed, in fruit elongated to 1. 5 cm, erect and stouter, with marked corky thickenings towards the point of attachment
    Calyx
    Calyx 6–12 mm long, 7–10 mm across, very accrescent to 12 mm in diameter, cyathiform; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 1. 5–2 mm, linear or lanceolate, acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 12 × 4 mm, at first curved out at the apex, later reflexed, the sinuses tomentose to subglabrous Calyx 6–12 mm long, 7–10 mm across, very accrescent to 12 mm in diameter, cyathiform; lobes unequal, 4–10 × 1.5–2 mm, linear or lanceolate, acuminate, in fruit enlarged to 12 × 4 mm, at first curved out at the apex, later reflexed, the sinuses tomentose to subglabrous.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, occasionally bluish, stelliform; limb 1. 8–3 cm across; lobes 5–12 × 4–10 mm, lanceolate, acuminate or acute, pubescent outside, glabrous or with a few hairs along the midrib inside, spreading or sub-reflexed Corolla white, occasionally bluish, stelliform; limb 1.8–3 cm across; lobes 5–12 × 4–10 mm, lanceolate, acuminate or acute, pubescent outside, glabrous or with a few hairs along the midrib inside, spreading or sub-reflexed.
    Stamens
    Stamen filaments 1–2(3) mm long; anthers (6)7–8(9) mm long, slender, oblong-conical, not cohering Stamen filaments 1–2(3) mm long; anthers (6)7–8(9) mm long, slender, oblong-conical, not cohering.
    Ovary
    Ovary c.  2 mm long, ovoid-ellipsoid, sulcate, sometimes tuberculate, sparsely glandular-pubescent or glabrous.
    Style
    Style (10)12–13 mm long, exceeding the stamens, sparsely glandular-pubescent at the base
    Fruits
    Fruits green, later yellowish to drab orange-yellow when ripe, drying brown, (10)13–20 mm in diameter, globose, hard, mucilaginous, glabrous Fruits green, later yellowish to drab orange-yellow when ripe, drying brown, (10)13–20 mm in diameter, globose, hard, mucilaginous, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds ± numerous, shining, yellow to light brown, 2–3 × 1. 5–2.5 mm, compressed, ± reniform, verruculose all over Seeds ± numerous, shining, yellow to light brown, 2–3 × 1.5–2.5 mm, compressed, ± reniform, verruculose all over.
    Note
    Chromosome number: 2n=24 Common name: “Giant Devil's Fig”. This species has long been known as S. hispidum, but according to Nee, in litt., that Andean species has a much larger, more open inflorescence. It is clearly an allied but distinct species. S. chrysotrichum C.H. Wright is a synonym of S. incanum.
    Ecology
    Woodland and riparian fringes, sometimes on termite mounds, roadsides and agricultural land, considered a serious weed; 1000–1525 m.
    Distribution
    ZAM C, ZAM E, MAL C Malawi Often cultivated as an ornamental, originally native to Mexico, Guatemala and Panama, now widespread in the tropics, said to have been introduced to Africa from India a long time ago to protect cattle kraals against lions, but nowadays a potentially noxio Zambia
    Habit
    Shrub or small tree up to 7.5 m, armed, but flowering branches sometimes unarmed; hairs stellate, ± long stalked to sessile, ± irregular, sometimes with a rather shorter or longer central ray, sometimes bristle-like; prickles reddish-brown to dark purple, 2–8(9) mm long and 1–8 mm wide at the base, laterally compressed and wide towards the base, stout, straight or recurved, subulate upwards, striate, often basally pubescent.
    Branches
    Branches tomentose to hispid or hirsute with bright rusty to rusty-brown hairs bearing long stalks and often elongate central rays, somewhat glabrescent. Branches tomentose to hispid or hirsute with bright rusty to rusty-brown hairs bearing long stalks and often elongate central rays, somewhat glabrescent
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or geminate, sometimes closely set at ends of branches; petiole 1–11 cm long; lamina rather leathery and rough to touch, 7–47(60) × 4–31(35) cm, broadly ovate to cordate, sometimes elliptic, base obtuse to cordate or truncate, often dimidiate, rarely equal-sided, apex acute to long-acuminate, entire to broadly, deeply and irregularly lobed, the lobes 7–13, rounded to ovate-lanceolate, apically rounded to acuminate, entire to lobulate, the sinuses rounded, hispid above with appressed, short, ± sessile hairs often bearing a long and apically recurved central ray, felty tomentose beneath with mostly brownish hairs, with 5–8 pairs of curved-ascending lateral nerves, sparingly prickly at least on the midrib or unarmed. Leaves solitary or geminate, sometimes closely set at ends of branches; petiole 1–11 cm long; lamina rather leathery and rough to touch, 7–47(60) × 4–31(35) cm, broadly ovate to cordate, sometimes elliptic, base obtuse to cordate or truncate, often dimidiate, rarely equal-sided, apex acute to long-acuminate, entire to broadly, deeply and irregularly lobed, the lobes 7–13, rounded to ovate-lanceolate, apically rounded to acuminate, entire to lobulate, the sinuses rounded, hispid above with appressed, short, ± sessile hairs often bearing a long and apically recurved central ray, felty tomentose beneath with mostly brownish hairs, with 5–8 pairs of curved-ascending lateral nerves, sparingly prickly at least on the midrib or unarmed
    Pistil
    Ovary c. 2 mm long, ovoid-ellipsoid, sulcate, sometimes tuberculate, sparsely glandular-pubescent or glabrous; style (10)12–13 mm long, exceeding the stamens, sparsely glandular-pubescent at the base.
    Cytology
    Chromosome number: 2n=24.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá

    Introduced into:

    Canary Is., China Southeast, Malawi, Peru, Taiwan, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum chrysotrichum Schltdl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 17, 2005 Blackmore, S. [1417], Malawi K000658679
    Aug 17, 2005 Blackmore, S. [1417], Malawi K000658680
    Jan 1, 1990 Hinton, G.B. [2824], Mexico K000042435
    Jan 1, 1990 Rosas R., M. [1423], Mexico K000042440
    Jan 1, 1989 Kerber, E. [236], Mexico K000042437
    Jan 1, 1989 Bourgeau, M. [2411], Mexico K000042438
    Jan 1, 1989 Langlassé, E. [770], Mexico K000042439
    Jan 1, 1986 Donnell Smith, J. [2260], Guatemala K000532500 isotype
    Jan 1, 1986 Bourgeau, M. [1798], Mexico K000042427
    Jan 1, 1986 Botteri, M. [854], Mexico K000042426
    Jan 1, 1986 Rosas R., M. [169], Mexico K000042428
    Jan 1, 1986 Velázquez L., C. [58], Mexico K000042425
    Jul 3, 1905 Robson, N.K.B. [1067], Zambia K000658683
    Jul 3, 1905 Fanshawe, D.B. [6871], Zambia K000658684
    Jul 3, 1905 Fanshawe, D.B. [6882], Zambia K000658687
    Jul 3, 1905 Angus, A. [3681], Zambia K000658682
    Jul 3, 1905 Angus, A. [2880], Zambia K000658685
    Jul 3, 1905 Hinds, J.H. [306], Zambia K000658688
    Jul 3, 1905 Hinds, J.H. [306], Zambia K000658689
    Jul 3, 1905 Hinds, J.H. [306b], Zambia K000658690
    Jul 3, 1905 Hinds, J.H. [306b], Zambia K000658691
    Jul 3, 1905 Brummitt, R.K. [11543], Malawi K000658677
    Jul 3, 1905 Stirton, C.H. [6306], South Africa K000658756
    Jul 3, 1905 Best, E.B. [143], Zambia K000658686
    Jul 3, 1905 Arnold, M.N.M. [s.n.O], South Africa K000658752
    Jul 3, 1905 Arnold, M.N.M. [s.n.O], South Africa K000658754
    Jul 3, 1905 Arnold, M.N.M. [s.n.N], South Africa K000658757
    Jul 3, 1905 Chapman, G.D. [1373], Malawi K000658678
    Jul 3, 1905 Brink, E. [276], South Africa K000658751
    Jul 3, 1905 Jacot Guillarmod, A. [7904], South Africa K000658755
    Arnold, M.H.M. [s.n.], South Africa K000658753
    Simpson, N.D. [5249], Egypt K001168678
    Tucker, J.M. [1162], El Salvador K001160203
    Skutch, A.F. [3222], Costa Rica K001160197
    MacOwan, P. [s.n.] K001168676
    Langdale-Brown, I. [2594], Guinea K001168674
    Salvin, O. [s.n.], Guatemala K001160204
    Salvin, O. [16], Guatemala K001160205
    Tonduz, A. [12767], Costa Rica K001160199
    Tonduz, A. [12767], Costa Rica K001160200
    Kew Gardens [s.n.] K001168670
    Yuncker, T.G. [6169], Honduras K001160196
    Heyde, E.T. [3441], Guatemala K001160201
    s.coll [s.n.], Australia K001168671
    s.coll [s.n.], Australia K001168672
    s.coll [s.n.], Australia K001168673
    s.coll [7476], French Guiana K001168675
    s.coll [s.n.], Algeria K001168677
    s.coll [s.n.], USA K001168679
    s.coll [3403] K001168681
    s.coll [440], Mexico K001160206
    Krishnappa, D.G. [31], India K001153156
    Menon, V. [s.n.], India K001153155
    P.M.O. [3403] K001168680
    Tondug, A. [12640] K001160198
    Haber, W.A. [1062], Costa Rica K001160202
    Davis, E.W. [6565], Colombia Solanum scorpioideum K001165670
    Smith, H.H. [1144], Colombia Solanum scorpioideum K000585615
    Sandeman, C.A.W. [5659], Colombia Solanum scorpioideum K001165671

    Bibliography

    First published in Linnaea 19: 304 (1846)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca

    • Nee, Symon, Lester & Jessop (eds.), Solanaceaae IV: 325 (1999) , non C.H. Wright (1894).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0