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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum coagulans Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa to Arabian Peninsula, Peninsula Malaysia (Kelantan).


    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type: Yemen, Forsskål 1744 (C!, lecto. designated here [IDC microfiche 2200, 101: III.1,2])
    Erect herb with a woody base, 0.1–0.7 m, densely armed; young stems densely stellate-pubescent, trichomes porrect, translucent, sessile or stalked, stalks to 0.1 mm, rays (7–)8, 0.15–0.35 mm, midpoints reduced or ± same length as rays; prickles straight, 2–8 mm long, less than 0.5 mm wide at base, uniform pale yellow lighter than the stems
    Leaf blades drying concolorous to slightly discolorous, ovate to narrowly lanceolate (narrowly elliptic), uniform yellowish green, (1.5)5–14 × (0.8–)1.5–6.5 cm, base attenuate to truncate or broadly cordate, usually oblique, margin lobed, the lobes 3–6(–11) on each side, up to 1.2 cm long, shallow and wide, rarely obovate, apically rounded, extending up to 1/2 (–3/4) of the distance to the midvein; apex rounded to acute; stellate-pubescent on both sides, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, sessile or stalked, stalks to 0.2 mm, rays 6–10, (0.1–)0.2–0.45 mm, midpoints reduced, trichomes of adaxial surface smaller; primary veins 4–8(–12) pairs; petiole 1–2 cm, 1/8–1/2 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences not branched, 2–3 cm long, with 1–6(–10) flowers; peduncle 0–5 mm long; rachis 0–0.8(–3.8) cm; peduncle and rachis unarmed or with reduced prickles; pedicels 0.7–1.5 cm long, in fruit 1–2(–2.8) cm long, usually unarmed
    Flowers perfect, 5-merous
    Calyx lobes 4–6.5 mm long, narrowly deltate, apically acute to narrowly acuminate or caudate, usually armed
    Corolla white to mauve, 1.5–2.3 cm in diameter, lobed for ± 2/3 of its length; lobes deltate, 4.5–8 × 4–7 mm
    Stamens unequal, free portion of 4 short filaments 0.5–1.5 mm long, free portion of long filament 1.8–2.5 mm long; anthers 4.5–6.5 mm
    Ovary densely stellatepubescent; style curved, 6–9 mm long
    Berries 2–8 per infructescence, spherical, 0.7–1.3 cm in diameter; fruiting calyx with numerous prickles
    Seeds 2.3–2.8 × 1.7–2.5 mm, almost black
    Fig 27, p 221
    Common weed of cultivated land, grazed ground, roadsides, coastal plains, and wooded grassland; usually on sand, silt or loam; 200–1500 m
    Solanum coagulans is a common weed of northeast Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, immediately recognisable in fruit by its densely spiny accrescent calyx covering most of the pericarp. The lowermost stamen is 1.5–2 mm longer than the others, although this is easily overlooked in pressed specimens. Numerous thin pale yellow prickles also distinguish this species. This species has been frequently referred to as Solanum dubium or Solanum thruppii. The epithet “ coagulans” has been historically applied to members of Solanum incanum sensu stricto that have similarly lobed yellowish leaves and are sympatric with S. coagulans in northern Africa. Solanum incanum is a larger woody plant with equal stamens, nonaccrescent calyx, thicker prickles, and larger fruits. Somewhat similar densely spiny accrescent calyces are found in New World S. sisymbriifolium (which is invasive in South Africa and has been recorded from the Kenyan coast, p. 226) and S. rostratum, and the Madagascan endemics S. toliaraea D’Arcy & Rakot. and S. mahoriense D’Arcy & Rakot.
    Flora districts: U1 K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 Range: Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Yemen Range: Sudan, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia



    Native to:

    Angola, Chad, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gulf States, Kenya, Malaya, Saudi Arabia, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen


    Other Data

    Solanum coagulans Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 20, 1971 Ash, J. [1191], Ethiopia 35484.000
    Greenway, P.J. [9893], Tanzania K001157380
    Greenway, P.J. [2010], Tanzania K001157383
    Gillett, J.B. [13958], Kenya K001157427
    Gillett, J.B. [13858], Kenya K001157437
    Gillett, J.B. [20121], Kenya K001157441
    Bally, P.R.O. [B2199], Kenya K001157419
    Bally, P.R.O. [B5485], Kenya K001157433
    Bally, P.R.O. [B1979], Kenya K001157452
    Hepper, F.N. [6079], Yemen K001152115
    Hepper, F.N. [6741], Kenya K001157415
    Hepper, F.N. [7206], Kenya K001157428
    Hepper, F.N. [7268], Kenya K001157432
    Bogdan, A. [4735], Kenya K001157422
    Bogdan, A. [5635], Kenya K001157435
    Mathew, B. [6278], Kenya K001157414
    Mathew, B. [6610], Kenya K001157448
    Richards, M. [20253], Tanzania K001157384
    Schweinfurth, G. [1377] K001156164
    Schweinfurth, G. [1378] K001156165
    Wilson, J. [426], Kenya K001157412
    Wood, J.R.I. [2562], Yemen K001152117
    Wood, J.R.I. [2490], Yemen K001152121
    Collenette, S. [119], Saudi Arabia K001152030
    Friis, I. [10031], Ethiopia K000212434
    Friis, I. [8997], Ethiopia K000212435
    Friis, I. [8604], Ethiopia K000212472
    Friis, I. [8669], Ethiopia K000212473
    Friis, I. [8667], Ethiopia K000212474
    Friis, I. [10172], Ethiopia K001156175
    Lucas, G.L. [63], Kenya K001157445
    Ash, J. [1191], Ethiopia K000212433
    Carter [1793], Sudan K001156167
    Carter [2236], Tanzania K001157385
    Carter, S. [188], Kenya K001157446
    Carter, S. [241], Kenya K001157447
    Carter, S. [497], Kenya K001157453
    Collenette, I.S. [766], Saudi Arabia K001152031
    Collenette, I.S. [6823], Saudi Arabia K001152106
    Thulin, M. [10736], Somalia K001156160
    Sheldrick, D. [B8727], Kenya K001157424
    Gardner, H.M. [3153], Kenya K001157426
    Luke, Q. [TPR602], Kenya K001157449
    Richards, H.M. [25667], Tanzania K001157382
    Tweedie, E.M. [3568] K001157378
    Tweedie, E.M. [1852] K001157379
    James [s.n.], Somalia K000413996 Unknown type material
    James [s.n.], Somalia K000413997 Unknown type material
    James [s.n.], Somalia K000413998 Unknown type material
    Schimper, W. [s.n.] K001152107
    Schimper, W. [837], Saudi Arabia K001152109
    Schimper, W. [837], Saudi Arabia K001152110
    Fernandez, J. [1637], Oman K001152039
    Fernandez, J. [1637], Oman K001152040
    Miller, A.G. [8107], Yemen K001152116
    Mwangangi, O.M. [1051], Kenya K001157416
    Herlocker, D. [EA16825], Kenya K001157417
    Newbould, J.G.B. [6868], Kenya K001157440
    Johnston, H.B. [24K], Sudan K001156161
    Mungai, G.M. [213], Kenya K001157430
    Bent, J.T. [s.n.] K001156162
    Peers, A.W. [Ko13], Sudan K001156172
    Ichikawa [578], Kenya K001157451
    Paulo, S. [481], Kenya K001157413
    Fischer, S. [23] K001152025
    NMK [108], Kenya K001157442
    Slageren, M. van [s.n.], Yemen K001152119
    Murray, G.W. [3805], Egypt K001152125
    Parlatore [s.n.], Egypt K001156170
    Mathenge, S.G. [160], Kenya K001157423
    Abdi, A. [GBK45934], Kenya K001157429
    Semsei, S.K. [2149], Tanzania K001157386
    s.coll [69], Saudi Arabia K001152024
    s.coll [23] K001152026
    s.coll [11], Yemen K001152118
    s.coll [62], Yemen K001152122
    s.coll [97], Egypt K001152124
    s.coll [127] K001156166
    s.coll [s.n.] K001156168
    s.coll [388] K001156174
    s.coll [99], Somalia K001156179
    s.coll [813A], Kenya K001157411
    s.coll [179], Kenya K001157420
    s.coll [6868], Kenya K001157421
    s.coll [27], Kenya K001157431
    s.coll [44], Kenya K001157436
    Tackholm, V. [1551], Egypt K001152127
    Omondi, W. [KEFRI4], Kenya K001157409
    Tweedie [2310] K001157418
    Jennings, E.A. [10], Yemen K001152120
    Todd, A.C. [1323], Saudi Arabia K001152027
    Schwan, H.F. [40], Saudi Arabia K001152028
    Pierce, C. [s.n.] K001152045
    Balston, M.E. [14], Saudi Arabia K001152108
    Shabeti, J.R. [1449bis], Egypt K001152126
    Pfund, I. [652] K001156173
    Pfund, D. [473] K001156163
    Pfund, D. [356] K001156169
    Briston, S.C. [15], Sudan K001156171
    Ogborn, K.J. [44] K001156177
    Lampoen, H.F. [424], Tanzania K001157381
    Muasya, J.M. [GBK23], Kenya K001157410
    Ament, T. [414], Kenya K001157425
    Symes, J.E. [185], Kenya K001157434
    Fox, C.F. [B4665], Kenya K001157438
    Williams, T.G. [EAH11039], Kenya K001157439
    N.I.B. [9], Kenya K001157450
    Gillett, J.B. [23131], Somalia Solanum dubium K000212488
    Gillett, J.B. [24102], Somalia Solanum dubium K000212491
    Gillett, J.B. [24091], Somalia Solanum dubium K000212493
    Bally, P.R.O. [6723], Eritrea Solanum dubium K000212484
    Bally, P.R.O. [6903], Eritrea Solanum dubium K000212485
    Bally, P.R.O. [7058], Eritrea Solanum dubium K000212486
    Bally, P.R.O. [3778], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489009
    Bally, P.R.O. [15431], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489011
    Peck, E.F. [282], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489013
    Ellis, P.E. [247], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212494
    Maitland, T.D. [1377], Sudan Solanum dubium K000212499
    Springfield, E.O. [9], Sudan Solanum dubium K000212498
    Glover [66], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489014
    Hemming, C.F. [1085], Eritrea Solanum dubium K000212487
    Hemming, C.F. [2120], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489007
    Hemming, C.F. [2326], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489008
    Hemming, C.F. [2131], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489016
    Hemming, C.F. [1645], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489017
    Burger, W. [2759], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212476
    Wickens, G.E. [277], Sudan Solanum dubium K000212496
    Friis, I. [4687], Somalia Solanum dubium K000212489
    Simpson, N.D. [7222], Sudan Solanum dubium K000212500
    Thulin, M. [3780], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212478
    Jackson, J.K. [1919], Sudan Solanum dubium K000212495
    Boaler, S.B. [167], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489004
    Kotschy [344], Sudan Solanum dubium K000413999 isosyntype
    Kotschy, Sudan Solanum dubium K000414000 isotype
    Kotschy [263], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000545577
    Kotschy [263], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000545578 syntype
    O'Brien [141], Somalia Solanum dubium K000212490
    de Wilde, J.J.F.E. [5125], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212477
    Collenette, C.N. [147], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489010
    Kuchar, P. [16970], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489001
    Mesfin, T. [4293], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212479
    Mesfin, T. [4190], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212480
    Westphal, E. [1149], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212482
    Godding, H.C. [131], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489012
    Longhitano, N. [71], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212481
    Iecama [10], Ethiopia Solanum dubium K000212483
    Sahni [626], Sudan Solanum dubium K000212497
    s.coll [13], Iran Solanum dubium K001152123
    Eagleton, G. [79], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489002
    Eagleton, G. [78], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489003
    Hagos, T. [131], Eritrea Solanum dubium K000212475
    Hemming, G.F. [293], Somalia Solanum dubium K000212492
    Ironside, J.R. [45], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489005
    Ironside, J.R. [45], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489006
    Keogh, R.S. [68], Somalia Solanum dubium K000489015
    Todd, A.C. [48], Saudi Arabia Solanum dubium K001152029


    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 47 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.

    Not accepted by

    • Balkrishna, A. (2018). Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust. [Cited as Solanum incanum.]


    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 144, fig. 158.16.4–6 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 218 (2006).
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994)
    • Blundell, Wild Fl. E. Afr.: 190, t. 841 (1992)
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 47 (1775)


    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa

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    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
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    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at and
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.