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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum cordatum Forssk.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is NE. Tropical Africa to N. Kenya, W. Yemen, Afghanistan to N. India.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Yemen, Naqil Khailan between Beui Harath & Nehm, NE of Sanaa, G.H.S. Wood 2327 (K!, neo. designated by Wood in K.B. 39: 136, 1984; BM!, isoneo.)
    General
    Erect or sometimes scandent subshrub, 0.3–1 m, unarmed or armed; young stems with scattered trichomes visible with the naked eye as white dots on the dark brown steam; trichomes white, multangulate, sessile, rays 12–18, up to 0.1(–0.15) mm, midpoints usually reduced to a globose gland; prickles straight or sometimes curved, up to 4 × 0.1–2(–6) mm at base
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying concolorous, yellowish green, orbicular (ovate), 0.7–1.5(–3) × 0.7–1.3(–3.5) cm, length usually same as the width (–1.5 times longer than wide), base cordate to attenuate (decurrent), equal, margin entire, apex rounded to acute; trichomes on abaxial surface porrect and multangulate, sessile (stalked), stalks to 0.1 mm, rays 8–16, 0.05–0.1(–0.15) mm, midpoints short or a globular gland, glabrescent; primary veins not visible or 2–4 pairs; petiole 0.2–1.3 cm, 1/3–2/3(–1) of the leaf length. Inflorescences 1.5–4 cm long, with 1(–2) flowers; peduncle absent; pedicels 0.5–3 cm long in flower, in fruit 1.5–3.5 cm long, unarmed
    Flowers
    Flowers perfect, 4- or 5-merous
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–4 mm long, lobes broadly deltate to oblong, 0.5–2 mm long, obtuse to acuminate, unarmed
    Corolla
    Corolla mauve to purple, 0.9–1.6 cm in diameter, lobed for 2/3–4/5 of its length, lobes deltate to lanceolate, 3–6.5 × 1.2–2 mm
    Stamens
    Stamens equal; anthers 3–5 mm
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous or with 1–2 trichomes; style 8–9 mm long
    Fruits
    Berries 1(–2) per infructescence, red at maturity, spherical, 6–8 mm in diameter; fruiting calyx unarmed
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.8–3 × 1.5–2.2 mm, almost black
    Ecology
    Grassland, bushland and open woodland on silty, sandy or stony soil; 700–1200 m
    Note
    Solanum cordatum can usually be recognised by its long filiform pedicels protruding beyond the leaves, and membranous glaucous glabrescent leaves with long decurrent narrowly-winged petioles. Unfortunately neither of these characters is constant and it is important to look at the indumentum under the microscope: trichomes on the young stems of S. cordatum are compact and multangulate, with rays almost always under 0.1 mm long, and a swollen gland usually present on the centre of the trichome on stems, young leaves or both.   Solanum cordatum is frequently confused with the variable and largely sympatric S. forskalii, and can be distinguished by its multangulate trichomes with 12–18 rays under 0.15 mm long on the young stems (versus porrect trichomes with 6–10 rays over 0.15 mm long on the young stems of S. forskalii), 1–2 flowers per inflorescence (versus 1–20 flowers per inflorescence in S. forskalii), and anthers 3–5 mm long (versus anthers 4.5–7 mm long in S. forskalii). This species is adapted to arid environments by shedding foliage during drought and opportunistic growth in wet periods.
    Distribution
    Range: Also Arabia, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India Range: Ethiopia, Somalia Flora districts: K1
    [KBu]

    Thulin, M. 2009. Solanum pronum (Solanaceae), a new species from north-eastern tropical Africa. Kew Bulletin 64: 491. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-009-9141-3

    Type
    Somalia, Galguduud Region, 4 km on road from Ceelbuur to Ceeldheer, Thulin, Hedrén & Abdi Dahir 7310 (holotypus UPS).
    Habit
    Slender unarmed shrub, trailing or scandent, with stems to 1 m long or more, the internodes 2 – 5.5 cm long on the long-shoots; young parts with indumentum of stellate hairs c. 0.2 – 0.3 mm in diam., closely appressed, sessile or subsessile, with 8 – 12 rays and without a middle ray; branchlets up to c. 2 mm in diam., glabrescent, with purplish brown bark
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate on young long-shoots, densely clustered on short shoots, all of ± uniform size; petiole 3 – 15 mm long, with ± sparse indumentum of stellate hairs; blade narrowly to broadly ovate or suborbicular, 10 – 30 × 6 – 24 mm, rounded to truncate or shortly cuneate at the base, rounded to acute at the apex, with entire margin, membranous, ± sparsely pubescent with closely appressed stellate hairs on both surfaces or glabrescent. Inflorescences 1 (– 2)-flowered, axillary on long-shoots or on short-shoots; peduncle absent; pedicels 15 – 22 mm long, elongating to 26 mm in fruit, slender, slightly thickened in upper part, sparsely pubescent with stellate hairs
    Calyx
    Calyx 3 – 5 mm long, ± sparsely pubescent with stellate hairs, divided to the middle or slightly more into 5 lanceolate lobes with shortly caudate tips, spreading in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla violet-blue, up to c. 1.5 cm across, deeply lobed, with 5 radiating lobes c. 7 – 8 × 3 mm, with indumentum of stellate hairs outside
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, subequal; anthers subsessile, 4 – 5 mm long, erect, yellow, dehiscing by apical pores
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous; style 5 – 7 mm long, markedly exceeding anthers, glabrous, curved and thickened at the tip; stigma capitate
    Fruits
    Fruit c. 8 mm in diam., globose, thin-walled, yellowish drying almost black
    Seeds
    Seeds not seen
    Distribution
    Solanum pronum is known from two localities, one in the eastern part of the Somali National Regional State (previously Harerge) in Ethiopia, and one in the adjacent Galguduud Region in central Somalia. The herbaria at BM, FT, K and UPS have been searched for further material, but without success.
    Ecology
    Both collections were made in Acacia-Commiphora bushland, the type from Somalia on limestone gravel at 140 m, whereas the Ethiopian collection was made in an area of red, silty sand close to pools at 450 m a.s.l.
    Conservation
    The localities known of Solanum pronum are about 230 km apart and no doubt further occurrences can be expected in the region. However, as only two localities are known, with only a few individuals each, it should be regarded as Endangered, EN B2a, biii D. The Ethiopian locality, which is situated close to seasonal pools where water is collected, is under high grazing pressure.
    Note
    The sparse indumentum of Solanum pronum, consisting of closely appressed stellate hairs without a middle ray, also differs markedly from that in all the other three species in the section. S. jubae, S. benadirense and S. pampaninii all have a much denser indumentum with more or less spreading hairs, mostly also with a middle ray. Furthermore, particularly in S. benadirense, the middle ray often has a terminal gland. The size of the flowers and fruits in Solanum pronum instead agrees better with that in S. jubae, but S. pronum differs from S. jubae by its slender habit with branchlets only 1 – 2 mm thick (S. jubae is a robust shrub with branchlets 2 – 5 mm thick), and in its 15 – 22 (– 26) mm long pedicels (pedicels 5 – 10 or rarely up to 13 mm long in S. jubae). The habit of Solanum pronum, with its trailing or scandent slender stems (the specific epithet means leaning forward or prostrate), resembles that of S. benadirense and S. pampaninii. However, S. pronum differs markedly from both these species by its smaller flowers with corolla up to about 1.5 cm across (corolla 2 – 4 cm or more across in S. benadirense and S. pampaninii), and smaller fruits (c. 8 mm versus c. 14 – 15 mm in diameter). According to the classification of Solanum in Africa proposed by Jaeger & Hepper (1986) and adopted by Friis (2006a, b, c) this new species belongs to S. sect. Somalanum Bitter. This section consists of unarmed shrubs with stellate indumentum, entire leaves, 1- to few-flowered inflorescences and equal anthers. Three species are previously known, all endemic to the Horn of Africa region: (1) S. jubae Bitter, widespread in Somalia, eastern Ethiopia and north-eastern Kenya, (2) S. benadirenseChiov. in central and southern Somalia and eastern Ethiopia, and (3) S. pampaniniiChiov. in southern Somalia.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Djibouti, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Oman, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Socotra, Somalia, Yemen

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum cordatum Forssk. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Apr 1, 2010 Peck, E.F. [366], Somalia K000441147
    Oct 16, 2009 Aitchison, J.E.T. [521], Afghanistan K000441220
    Jul 1, 2008 Gillett, J.B. [22406], Somalia K000441148
    Jul 1, 2008 Gillett, J.B. [4097], Somalia K000441150
    Jul 1, 2008 Gillett, J.B. [4097], Somalia K000441151
    Jul 1, 2008 Gillett, J.B. [12790], Kenya K000441153
    Jul 1, 2008 Gillett, J.B. [12790], Kenya K000441154
    Jul 1, 2008 Lawton, R.M. [2402], Oman K000441135
    Jul 1, 2008 Ellis, P.E. [268], Ethiopia K000441139
    Jul 1, 2008 Ellis, P.E. [151], Ethiopia K000441142
    Jul 1, 2008 Gilbert, M.G. [130], Ethiopia K000441138
    Jul 1, 2008 Gilbert, M.G. [3993], Ethiopia K000441141
    Jul 1, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [2727], Yemen K000441130
    Jul 1, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [2765], Yemen K000441133
    Jul 1, 2008 Wood, J.R.I. [2327], Yemen K000441137 neotype
    Jul 1, 2008 Friis, I. [4766], Somalia K000441149
    Jul 1, 2008 Stearn, W.T. [32], Pakistan K000441213
    Jul 1, 2008 Collenette, I.S. [5503], Saudi Arabia K000441125
    Jul 1, 2008 Collenette, I.S. [5790], Saudi Arabia K000441126
    Jul 1, 2008 Collenette, I.S. [5986], Saudi Arabia K000441127
    Jul 1, 2008 Stocks, J.E. [252], Pakistan K000441208
    Jul 1, 2008 James [s.n.], Somalia K000441143
    Jul 1, 2008 James [s.n.], Somalia K000441144
    Jul 1, 2008 James [s.n.], Somalia K000441145
    Jul 1, 2008 Miller, A.G. [3146], Yemen K000441128
    Jul 1, 2008 Miller, A.G. [7157], Oman K000441132
    Jul 1, 2008 Dalzell, N.A. [s.n.], India K000441211
    Jul 1, 2008 Drummond, J.R. [13856], India K000441210
    Jul 1, 2008 Drummond, J.R. [14448], India K000441214
    Jul 1, 2008 Drummond, J.R. [14703], India K000441216
    Jul 1, 2008 Boulos, L. [16711], Yemen K000441129
    Jul 1, 2008 Deflers, M. [488], Yemen K000441136 isotype
    Jul 1, 2008 Deane, H. [s.n.], Pakistan K000441217
    Jul 1, 2008 Edgeworth [s.n.], India K000441218
    Jul 1, 2008 Edgeworth [s.n.], India K000441221
    Jul 1, 2008 Saxton, W.T. [499], India K000441222
    Jul 1, 2008 Fiennes, R.T.W. [50], Oman K000441131
    Jul 1, 2008 Daliph, N.E. [77], Pakistan K000441209
    Jul 1, 2008 Soll., S. [252], Pakistan K000441212
    Jul 1, 2008 Jafii, S.M.H. [903], Pakistan K000441215
    Jul 1, 2008 Cooke, J. [s.n.], Pakistan K000441223 syntype
    Jun 30, 1905 Wieland, R.G. [4659[b]], Somalia K000441146
    Jun 11, 1905 Radcliffe-Smith, A. [4740], Yemen K000441134
    Gillett, J.B. [4877], Ethiopia K000441152
    Parker, R.N. [3326], India K000441219

    Bibliography

    First published in Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 47 (1775)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions

    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 134, fig. 158.12.3–4 (2006).
    • Fl. Aegypt.-Arab.: 47 (1775)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0