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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum dasyphyllum Schumach. & Thonn.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FWTA]

    Solanaceae, H. heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Usually a coarsely hairy and spiny undershrub up to 3 ft. high
    Flowers
    Bluish-purple flowers 1-11/2 in. diam.
    Note
    Unarmed plants occur (var. inerme Bitter) but the occurrence of spines cannot be regarded as of taxonomic importance.
    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: ‘Guinea’, Dyrkes af Negerne, Thonning 144 (C!, lecto. [IDC microfiche 2203 102:I.1–2, “362”] designated here [best material]; C, G-DC, isolecto.)
    Habit
    Woody herb, 0.5–1 m, erect, heavily armed; young stems sparsely to densely stellate-pubescent, trichomes porrect, white-translucent or yellowish, stalked, stalks 0.5–2.5 mm, often broad and lignified, rays ± 4, 0.5–1 mm, midpoints ± same length as rays or up to 1 mm; prickles straight, 2–7 mm long, 0.5–1.5 mm wide at base, flattened
    Leaves
    Leaf blades drying discolorous to almost concolorous, yellow-green to red-brown, elliptic, 10–35 × 6–20 cm, 1.2–2 times longer than wide, base attenuate (cuneate), usually equal, margin lobed, the lobes (3–)4–5(–6) on each side, 3–9 cm long, usually with extensive secondary lobing, apically acute to obtuse, extending 1/2–2/3 of the distance to the midvein; apex acute to obtuse; sparsely to densely stellate-pubescent on both sides, trichomes on abaxial surface porrect, stalked, stalks 0.1–0.5 mm, rays 4(–5), 0.4–0.7 mm, midpoints ± same length as rays or up to 0.8 mm, adaxially appearing as simple hairs visible to the naked eye, with bulbous bases and no visible rays, the midpoint 0.5–2 mm; primary veins 5–8 pairs; petiole usually decurrent (0–4 cm), usually less than 1/6 of the leaf length
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences not branched, 4–7 cm long, with 5–10 flowers; peduncle 0–3 mm long; rachis 1.5–3.5 cm long; peduncle and rachis unarmed or with numerous prickles; pedicels 1.5–3 cm long and stout in long-styled flowers, 0.7–2.5 cm and slender in short-styled flowers, in fruit 1.5–3 cm long, with numerous prickles
    Flowers
    Flowers heterostylous, 5-merous, basal one long-styled. Calyx 10–30 mm on longstyled flowers, 8–20 mm long on short-styled flowers, lobes deltate, 12–25 mm on long-styled flowers, 7–10 mm long on short-styled flowers, apically acute to longacuminate, densely covered in prickles in long-styled flowers
    Corolla
    Corolla mauve to purple (white), 3.5–6 cm in diameter on long-styled flowers, 1.5–3.5 cm in diameter on short-styled flowers, lobed for 1/4–1/3 of its length, lobes broadly deltate, 5–20 × 10–25 mm on long-styled flowers, 2–7 × 7–15 mm on short-styled flowers. Stamens equal; anthers 16.5–7.5 mm on long-styled flowers, 5.5–7.5 mm on shortstyled flowers
    Ovary
    Ovary with a few trichomes on the upper 1/3; style 8–13 mm long on long-styled flowers
    Fruits
    Berries 1(–2) per infructescence, striped when young, yellow at maturity, spherical, 2.5–4 cm in diameter; fruiting calyx with numerous prickles
    Seeds
    Seeds 2.8–4.5 × 2–3.5 mm
    Ecology
    Mainly a forest species but also in wooded grassland, grassland and wasteland, frequently near water; (0–)600–1600 m
    Note
    The usually attenuate leaf base and decurrent petiole provide the easiest identification feature for S. dasyphyllum and S. macrocarpon. The sizeable stellate hairs on stems and leaves have a maximum of 4 or 5 rays, another useful identification feature overlooked in other treatments.  It is now widely accepted that S. dasyphyllum is the wild progenitor of the cultivated S. macrocarpon. Less hairy forms of S. dasyphyllum with fewer prickles and larger fruit were selected for cultivation to produce the visibly different S. macrocarpon. The distinction between the cultivated S. macrocarpon and the wild S. dasyphyllum is largely artificial but maintained here for practical purposes. Several species of African Solanum have confusingly similar large leaves, pointed leaf lobes, straight yellow flattened prickles on both surfaces of the leaf, and elongated midpoints of the adaxial leaf surface: S. cerasiferum, S. nigriviolaceum, and S. aculeatissimum can all be superficially similar to S. dasyphyllum. Solanum dasyphyllum is most frequently confused with the introduced S. aculeatissimum Jacq. and can be distinguished by its lack of distinct petiole and long-attenuate leaf bases, almost rotate corolla on short-styled flowers, and only 4(–5) rays on the star hairs on vegetative parts of the plant.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U2 U4 K1 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Z Range: Gambia, Sierra Leone, Guinea Bissau, Liberia, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, Central African Republic, Congo-Kinshasa, Rwanda, Burundi, Sudan, Ethiopia, Somalia, Angola, Zambia, Mozambique, South Africa

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Benin, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, KwaZulu-Natal, Liberia, Mozambique, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Togo, Zambia, Zaïre

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum dasyphyllum Schumach. & Thonn. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    May 1, 2011 Malombe, I. [1392], Kenya K000662263
    Oct 1, 2010 Onochie, C.F.A. [7681], Nigeria K000441866
    Oct 1, 2010 Jones, A.P.D. [16714], Nigeria K000441864
    Oct 1, 2010 Dalziel, J.M. [186], Nigeria K000441862
    Oct 1, 2010 Gregory, H. [27], Nigeria K000441861
    Oct 1, 2010 Chevalier, A. [24680], Burkina Faso K000441857
    Oct 1, 2010 Chevalier, A. [21817], Côte d'Ivoire K000441858
    Oct 1, 2010 Hepper, F.N. [3703], Mauritania K000441854
    Oct 1, 2010 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000441853
    Oct 1, 2010 Brummitt, R.K. [15639], Malawi K000441850
    Oct 1, 2010 Hall, J.B. [46212], Ghana K000441856
    Oct 1, 2010 Hall, J.B. [1765], Nigeria K000441863
    Oct 1, 2010 Kennedy, J.D. [2327], Nigeria K000441860
    Oct 1, 2010 Ruxton, J.P. [39], Gambia K000441859
    Oct 1, 2010 Hall-Martin, A.J. [1183], Malawi K000441851
    Oct 1, 2010 Espírito Santo, J. [1818], Guinea-Bissau K000441855
    Oct 1, 2010 Dawodu, T.B. [37], Nigeria K000441865
    Oct 1, 2010 Daramola, B.D. [90114], Nigeria K000441867
    Aug 1, 2010 Le Testu, G. [3862], Central African Republic K000441462
    Jun 4, 2009 Andrews, F.W. [1303], Sudan K000441499
    Jun 4, 2009 Andrews, F.W. [1303], Sudan K000441500
    Jun 4, 2009 Myers, J.G. [6475], Sudan K000441501
    Jun 4, 2009 Mooney, H.F. [9211], Ethiopia K000441493
    Jun 4, 2009 Friis, I. [10817], Ethiopia K000441488
    Jun 4, 2009 Friis, I. [8113], Ethiopia K000441492
    Jun 4, 2009 Friis, I. [7050], Ethiopia K000441495
    Jun 4, 2009 Friis, I. [800], Sudan K000441498
    Jun 4, 2009 Ash, J.W. [3088], Ethiopia K000441490
    Jun 4, 2009 Ash, J.W. [3088], Ethiopia K000441496
    Jun 4, 2009 Harris, D. [2067], Central African Republic K000441489
    Jun 4, 2009 Maunder, M. [94], Somalia K000441502
    Jun 4, 2009 [illegible] [1584], Ethiopia K000441491
    Jun 4, 2009 Schimper, G.H.W. [1404], Ethiopia K000441497 isolectotype
    Jun 4, 2009 Sebald, O. [2560], Ethiopia K000441487
    Jun 4, 2009 Mesfin Tadese [4088], Ethiopia K000441494
    Apr 24, 2009 Leonard, A. [4228], Congo K000441478
    Apr 24, 2009 Compère, P. [421], Congo K000441479
    Apr 24, 2009 Anonymous [s.n.] K000441477
    Apr 24, 2009 Lebrun, J.P. [8051], Congo K000441473
    Apr 24, 2009 Lebrun, J.P. [8197], Congo K000441474
    Apr 24, 2009 Lebrun, J.P. [8279], Congo K000441475
    Apr 24, 2009 Lebrun, J.P. [9760], Rwanda K000441481
    Apr 24, 2009 Laurent, J.F. [127], Congo K000441476
    Apr 24, 2009 Putman, P.T.L. [M89], Congo K000441480
    Apr 17, 2009 Liben, L. [12711], Rwanda K000441469
    Apr 17, 2009 Lewalle, J. [25], Burundi K000441467
    Apr 17, 2009 Reekmans, M. [8474], Burundi K000441468
    Apr 17, 2009 Witte, G.F. de [14285], Congo K000441472
    Apr 17, 2009 Troupin, G.M.D.J. [4964], Rwanda K000441470
    Apr 17, 2009 Troupin, G.M.D.J. [7194], Rwanda K000441471
    Feb 20, 2009 Hepper, F.N. [2788], Nigeria K000441466
    Feb 20, 2009 Fay, J.M. [5431], Central African Republic K000441458
    Feb 20, 2009 Fay, J.M. [5430], Central African Republic K000441461
    Feb 20, 2009 Fay, J.M. [1891], Central African Republic K000441463
    Feb 20, 2009 Fay, J.M. [4346], Central African Republic K000441464
    Feb 20, 2009 Fay, J.M. [5432], Central African Republic K000441465
    Feb 20, 2009 Tessmann, G. [404a], Equatorial Guinea K000441457
    Feb 20, 2009 Schweinfurth, G.A. [3047], Sudan K000441459
    Feb 20, 2009 Schweinfurth, G.A. [3047], Sudan K000441460
    Dec 1, 1961 Ngomba, J.N. [1], Cameroon K000028640
    Jul 1, 1905 Jacques-Felix, H. [2603], Cameroon K000028639
    Jul 1, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [456], Cameroon K000028641
    Jul 1, 1905 Migeod, F.W.H. [456], Cameroon K000028642
    Milne-Redhead, E. [7055], Tanzania 22974.000
    Greenway, P.J. [11109], Tanzania K001157468
    Greenway, P.J. [12434], Tanzania K001157469
    Greenway, P.J. [12434], Tanzania K001157486
    Gillett, J.B. [19396], Kenya K001157494
    Bally, P.R.O. [B1340], Kenya K001157491
    Bally, P.R.O. [B5365], Kenya K001157492
    Bally, P.R.O. [B2038], Kenya K001157501
    Onochie, C.F.A. [35941], Nigeria K001155715
    Onochie, C.F.A. [40175], Nigeria K001155716
    Archer, P.G. [306], Tanzania K001157475
    Chancellor, R.J. [226], Uganda 17712.000
    Hepper, F.N. [1805], Cameroon K001155942
    Gossweiler, J. [388], Angola K001029804
    Napier, E.R. [1127], Kenya K001157503
    Hornby, H.E. [425], Tanzania K001157474
    Trapnell, C.G. [1241], Zambia K001158603
    Lely, H.V. [91], Nigeria K001155718
    Maitland, T.D. [179], Uganda K001157511
    Glover [1877], Kenya K001157506
    Bax, R.D. [254], Tanzania K001157479
    Brummitt, R.K. [15639], Malawi K001158601
    Verdcourt [2783], Tanzania K001157467
    Strey, R.G. [6749], South Africa K001159199
    Luke, Q. [14305], Kenya K001157489
    Luke [1399], Kenya K001157499
    Manktelow, S. [93063], Tanzania K001157487
    Welwitsch [6096], Angola K001029803
    Luke, P.A. [7419], Kenya K001157490
    Luke, W.R.Q. [8083], Tanzania K001157483
    Linder, D.H. [571], Liberia K001155720
    Batty, M. [597], Tanzania K001157477
    Batty, M. [198], Tanzania K001157482
    Barter [1344], Nigeria K000414046 Unknown type material
    Cooper, T. [1274], South Africa K001159201
    Cooper, T. [1374], South Africa K001159202
    Dummer, R.A. [4320], Uganda K001157516
    Speke [605], Uganda K001157513
    Thomas, N.W. [1660], Nigeria K001155708
    Thomas, N.W. [1829], Nigeria K001155711
    Thomas, N.W. [9508], Sierra Leone K001155719
    Monteiro [s.n.], Angola K001029802
    Wakefield, T. [s.n.], Kenya K001157500
    Foster, E.W. [347], Nigeria K001155709
    Loveridge, M.V. [97], Uganda K001157507
    Loveridge, M.V. [105], Uganda K001157508
    Lye, K.A. [6122], Uganda K001157515
    Mwachala, G. [EW1267], Kenya K001157496
    Haarer, Q.E. [639], Tanzania K001157470
    Loveridge [105], Uganda K001157519
    Ross, J.H. [2172], South Africa K001159200
    Rowland, G.W. [s.n.] K001155710
    Kisena [1233], Tanzania K001157495
    Symes, Y.E. [672], Uganda K001157509
    Harrison [29] K001155712
    Ament, J. [307], Kenya K001157493
    Pirozynski, K.A. [P272], Tanzania K001157485
    Kirika, P. [s.n.], Kenya K001157497
    ERN [523], Togo K001169494
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [7055], Tanzania K001157473
    Milne-Redhead, E.W.B.H. [7055], Tanzania K001157478
    Renvoize, S.A. [1440], Tanzania K001157484
    Sharland [603], Nigeria K001155717
    Purseglove, J.W. [P3565], Uganda K001157517
    s.coll [2867] K001169492
    s.coll [1804] K001169493
    s.coll [2220], Nigeria K001155707
    s.coll [2199], Nigeria K001155713
    s.coll [s.n.], Tanzania K001157488
    s.coll [6721], Kenya K001157502
    s.coll [398], Uganda K001157510
    s.coll [568], Uganda K001157512
    s.coll [226], Uganda K001157518
    Yates, C.C. [16A], Nigeria K001155714
    Luke, WRQ. [15731], Mali K001155721
    Nyaki [49], Tanzania K001157498
    Thomas, A. [3811], Uganda K001157514
    Richards, M.A.E. [24712], Tanzania K001157471
    Richards, M.A.E. [25333], Tanzania K001157472
    Richards, M.A.E. [20330], Tanzania K001157476
    Richards, M.A.E. [26821], Tanzania K001157480
    Richards, M.A.E. [28865], Tanzania K001157481
    Tweedie [3081], Kenya K001157504
    Tweedie [3081], Kenya K001157505
    Elliott, G.F.S. [7693] K000441852
    Jacobson, N. [365], Zambia K001158602
    Arnold, M.H.M. ["B"], South Africa Solanum acanthoideum 35968.000
    Arnold, M.H.M. ["D"], South Africa Solanum acanthoideum 35977.000

    Bibliography

    First published in Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 126 (1827)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    • Bitter in Fedde Rep., Beih. 16: 188 (1923), incl. var. semiglabrum (C. H. Wright) Bitter l.c. 191, and var. inerme Bitter l.c. 192.
    • in Beskr. Guin. Pl. 126 (1827)

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 137, fig. 158.13.8–10 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 216 (2006).
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994)
    • F.W.T.A. 2nd ed., 2: 334 (1963)
    • T.T.C.L.: 585 (1949)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 244 (1906)
    • Beskr. Guin. Pl.: 126 [146] (1827)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0