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  1. Family: Solanaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Solanum L.
      1. Solanum dennekense Dammer

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Ethiopia to Tanzania, Yemen.

    [FTEA]

    Solanaceae, Jennifer M Edmonds. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2012

    Type
    Type: Ethiopia, Arussi-Galla, Dennek, Ellenbeck 1965 (?B†, holo.)
    Habit
    Shrubs 1–5 m high, rarely herbaceous, armed; young stems whitish or occasionally yellowish to 6 mm diameter, with dense stellate-tomentose pubescence, hairs as for S arundo, glabrescent; simple glandular hairs sometimes also present throughout; main stems and branches with scattered recurved sharply pointed prickles as in S. arundo, 6.5–10 × 5.5–8 mm basally
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite, light green above, whitish to light green below, rough, broadly ovate to obovate, 2.8–4.2(–7.5) × 2.3–3.5(–5.6) cm, bases cordate (cuneate), margins entire to sinuate, definite lobes absent, apices obtuse to acute; veining prominent; both surfaces stellate-tomentose, the hairs to 1 mm diameter with up to 14 equal rays 0.2–0.5 mm long, those below usually denser and enmeshed; usually with a few (to 4) straight acicular prickles 4–9 × 0.4–1 mm on midribs; petioles yellowish, 0.3–1.5 cm long, with occasional straight acicular prickles
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal to lateral, simple or forked to multiply-branched, lax, racemose cymes
    Flowers
    Flowers few to many(–16), sometimes aromatic, 5-(–6)-merous; axes yellowish and densely stellate-tomentose, hairs as on stems; peduncles erect, .8–1.7 cm long in flower, short and woody in fruit; pedicels erect to recurved and 0.6–1.3 cm in flower, 0.9–1.5 cm in fruit and strongly recurved, thickened beneath calyx
    Calyx
    Calyx yellowish, campanulate, 6–11 mm long, stellate-tomentose externally, glabrous internally with distinct venation, with straight acicular prickles to 2.5 × 0.2 mm usually on tube veins; lobes often unequal, narrowly triangular to -ovate, becoming strongly recurved between corolla lobes, 2.5–6 × 1.5–4 mm, obtuse to acute; adherent basally in fruit then becoming strongly reflexed, 4–8 × 3–7 mm
    Corolla
    Corolla blue to purple, sometimes with white margins, often with a yellow basal star, stellate, 2.2–3.6 cm diameter, tube 2–3.5 mm long, glabrous; lobes ligulate to lanceolate, 7–15 × 1.6–6 mm, acute, densely stellate-tomentose externally, internally with stellate hairs on median veins, margins and towards lobe apices, lobes strongly reflexed after anthesis
    Stamens
    Stamens usually equal; filaments free for 0.6–1.5 mm, glabrous; anthers bright yellow to orange, poricidal, (5–)6–8.3 × 1–1.6 mm, usually connivent
    Ovary
    Ovary brownish, 1.5–3 × 1.5–3.2 mm, stellate-pubescent with long silky median rays adherent to ovary and stylar base, usually bilocular sometimes 4-locular; style usually straight, stellate-pubescent in lower part, 8–12 mm in hermaphrodite flowers, sometimes curved and exserted up to 5 mm, 3–6 mm enclosed within the staminal tube in ‘male’ flowers, stellate-pubescent in lower part, often with long median rays clasping the stylar base; stigma clavate, usually bi- occasionally tri-lobed, 1–2.2 × 0.6–0.8 mm
    Fruits
    Fruit rough, yellow, globose to ovoid, 1–3 × 1.6–3.2 mm, with thick (0.3–1.5 mm) tough pericarp, sparsely to moderately stellate-tomentose
    Seeds
    Seeds > 100 per berry, smooth, orange or brown, 2–3 × 1.4–2.5 mm, obovoid to orbicular, occasionally reniform, not flattened, shallowly punctuate/verrucate; sclerotic granules absent
    Figures
    Fig 26/9–14, p 217
    Ecology
    Grassland, often near old Masai manyattas/enkang, Terminalia wooded grassland, woodland, Acacia-Bauhinia bushland, Acacia-Commiphora-Grewia bushland; 1200–1850 m
    Note
    Herbarium specimens of this species are generally poor – with one collector noting that the leaves immediately crinkle on picking. Another noted that the dense whitish indumentum often sloughs off when touched. In Somalia and Ethiopia this species is often found near cultivated ground and the edges of fields or in groups in grassy places. The plants are browsed by goats and donkeys in K 6, but their frequency in old Masai homestead areas is probably due to their use as protective hedging for cattle against lions and other predators. The flowers are reportedly visited by large bees in Somalia and as being aromatic in T 1.  Friis in Fl. Eth. reported the occurrence of this species in Yemen – but no specimens were seen from this area; he also cited an ‘unlocalised’ specimen of this taxon which was probably from eastern Eritrea. The photograph of Ruspoli & Riva’s syntype clearly illustrates sparse recurved prickles and the entire broadly ovate leaves with prominently cordate bases characteristic of S. dennekense. The holotype of S. gilletti is a good specimen which exhibits all of the morphological features that characterise S. dennekense.
    Distribution
    Range: Ethiopia, N Somalia (see Note) Flora districts: K1 K6 T1 T2

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia, Tanzania, Yemen

    Synonyms

    Other Data

    Solanum dennekense Dammer appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2012 Friis, I. [11183], Ethiopia K000788330
    Jan 1, 2012 Friis, I. [8304], Ethiopia K000546072 isoneotype
    Apr 1, 2010 Bally, P.R.O. [B10651], Tanzania K000441628
    Jun 30, 1905 Greenway, P.J. [10582], Tanzania K000441625
    Jun 30, 1905 Bally, P.R.O. [B7608], Tanzania K000441624
    Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [976], Tanzania K000441623
    Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [4284], Tanzania K000441626
    Jun 30, 1905 Tanner, R.E.S. [4284], Tanzania K000441627
    Gillett, J.B. [3931], Ethiopia K001156189
    Bally, P.R.O. [B3779], Ethiopia K001156188
    Glover [724], Uganda K001157521
    Wood, J.R.I. [1939], Yemen K001152128
    Wood, J.R.I. [3223], Yemen K001152129
    Friis, I. [12878], Ethiopia K001156183
    Newbould, J.G.B. [5859], Tanzania K001157524
    Kirika, P. [s.n.], Uganda K001157520
    Taiti, S. [1883], Kenya K001157522
    Brooks, A.P. [86], Tanzania K001157523

    Bibliography

    First published in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 38(1): 57 (1905)

    Accepted by

    • PBI Solanum Project (2014-continuously updated). Solanaceae Source: a global taxonomic resource for the nightshade family http://www.solanaceaesource.org/.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa

    • Fl. Eth. 5: 135 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 215 (2006)
    • Fl. Somalia 3: 215 (2006).
    • K.S.T.L.: 580 (1994)
    • U.K.W.F., 2nd ed.: 243 (1994)
    • Jaeger, Syst. stud. Solanum in Africa: 419 (1985, ined.)
    • Gentes Herb. 12: 265 (1984)
    • E.P.A.: 865 (1963)
    • Polhill, Solanum in E & NE Africa: 33 (ined., 1961)
    • F.R. 16: 144 (1923)
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 573 (1906)
    • E.J. 38: 57 (1905)

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0